Team Learning in Education and Professional Organisations

  • Filip DochyEmail author
  • David Gijbels
  • Elisabeth Raes
  • Eva Kyndt
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)


This chapter starts with a short history of team learning. Learning in group has been a research topic for quite some time in education. Studies on problem-based and project-based learning will be overviewed. Different explanations of the effects found will be discussed.

In a next part, we will make an overview of recent studies on team learning in different types of teams and organisations. In this overview, it will become clear that team learning works slightly different in different contexts.

Finally, conclusions from the presented research will be formulated.


Team learning Problem-based learning Project-based learning 


  1. Albanese, M. A., & Mitchell, S. (1993). Problem-based learning: A review of literature on its outcomes and implementation issues. Academic Medicine, 68, 52–81.Google Scholar
  2. Alderfer, C. P. (1980). The methodology of organizational diagnosis. Professional Psychology, 11, 459–468.Google Scholar
  3. Argote, L. (1993). Group and organizational learning curves: Individual, system and environmental components. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 31–51.Google Scholar
  4. Argote, L., Gruenfeld, D., & Naquin, C. (2001). Group learning in organizations. In M. E. Turner (Ed.), Groups at work: Theory and research (pp. 369–412). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  5. Argyris, C., & Schön, D. (1978). Organisational learning: A theory of action perspective. Reading: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  6. Arrow, H., & Cook, J. (2008). Configuring and reconfiguring groups as complex learning systems. In V. Sessa & M. London (Eds.), Work group learning. Understanding, improving & assessing how groups learn in organizations (pp. 45–72). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  7. Arrow, H., McGrath, J. E., & Berdahl, J. L. (2000). Small groups as complex systems: Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  8. Baker, M. (1994). A model for negotiation in teaching-learning dialogues. Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 5, 199–254.Google Scholar
  9. Barron, B. (2000). When smart groups fail. The Journal of the Learning Science, 12, 307–359.Google Scholar
  10. Barrows, H. S. (1996). Problem-based learning in medicine and beyond: A brief overview. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 1996(68), 3–12.Google Scholar
  11. Beck, H. P., & Pierce, L. G. (1996). The impact of selected group processes on the coordination and motivation of army teams. Maryland: Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground.Google Scholar
  12. Berkson, L. (1993). Problem-based learning: Have the expectations been met? Academic Medicine, 68(10), S79–S88.Google Scholar
  13. Blumenfeld, P. C., Soloway, E., Marx, R. W., Krajcik, J. S., Guzdial, M., & Palincsar, A. (1991). Motivating project-based learning: Sustaining the doing, supporting the learning. Educational Psychologist, 26, 369–398.Google Scholar
  14. Boon, A., Raes, E., Kyndt, E., & Dochy, F. (2013). Team learning beliefs and behaviours in police- and firemen teams. European Journal of Training and Development, 37(4), 357–379.Google Scholar
  15. Bouwen, R. (1998). Relational construction of meaning in emerging organization contexts. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 7, 299–319.Google Scholar
  16. Brooks, A. K. (1994). Power and the production of knowledge: Collective team learning in work organizations. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 5, 213–235.Google Scholar
  17. Brousseau, M. O. (1997). Socio-environmental factors influencing team learning with implications for performance outcomes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University.Google Scholar
  18. Bunderson, J. S., & Sutcliffe, K. M. (2002). Comparing alternative conceptualizations of functional diversity in management teams: Process and performance effects. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 875–893.Google Scholar
  19. Bunderson, J. S., & Sutcliffe, K. M. (2003). Management team learning orientation and business unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 552–560.Google Scholar
  20. Burke, S., Salas, E., & Diaz, D. (2008). The role of team learning in facilitating team adaptation within complex environments: Tools and strategies. In V. Sessa & M. London (Eds.), Work group learning. Understanding, improving & assessing how groups learn in organizations (pp. 15–44). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, E. G. (1994). Restructuring the classroom: Conditions for productive small groups. Review of Educational Research, 64, 1–35.Google Scholar
  22. Cohen, S. G., & Bailey, D. E. (1997). What makes teams work: Group effectiveness research from the shop floor to the executive suite. Journal of Management, 23, 239–290.Google Scholar
  23. Colliver, J. A. (2000). Effectiveness of problem-based learning curricula: Research and theory. Academic Medicine, 75, 259–266.Google Scholar
  24. Covey, S. R. (1989). The seven habits of highly effective leaders. Amsterdam: Business Contact.Google Scholar
  25. Crossan, M. M., Lane, H. W., White, R. E., & Djurfeldt, L. (1995). Organizational learning: Dimensions for a theory. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 3, 337–360.Google Scholar
  26. Crossan, M. M., Lane, H. W., & White, R. E. (1999). An organizational learning framework: From intuition to institution. Academy of Management Review, 24, 522–537.Google Scholar
  27. De Dreu, C. K. W., & Weingart, L. R. (2003). Task versus relationship conflicts, team performance and team member satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 741–749.Google Scholar
  28. Dechant, K., Marsick, V. J., & Kazl, E. (1993). Towards a model of team learning. Studies in Continuing Education, 15, 1–14.Google Scholar
  29. Decuyper, S., Dochy, F., & Van den Bossche, P. (2010). Grasping the dynamic complexity of team learning: An integrative model for effective team learning in organisations. Educational Research Review, 5, 111–133.Google Scholar
  30. Devine, D. J. (2002). A review and integration of classification systems relevant to teams in organizations. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6, 291–310.Google Scholar
  31. Dewey, J. (1936). The school and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. Dewey, J. (1940). Education today. New York: Greenwood press.Google Scholar
  33. Dillenbourg, P. (1999). What do you mean by collaborative learning? In P. Dillenbourg (Ed.), Collaborative-learning: Cognitive and computational approaches (pp. 1–19). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  34. Dochy, F., Segers, M., Van den Bossche, P., & Gijbels, D. (2003). Effects of problem-based learning: A meta-analysis. Learning and Instruction, 13, 533–568.Google Scholar
  35. Edmondson, A. C. (1996). Learning from mistakes is easier said than done: Group and organizational influences on the detection and correction of human error. Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, 32, 5–32.Google Scholar
  36. Edmondson, A. C. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behaviour in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 350–383.Google Scholar
  37. Edmondson, A. C. (2002). The local and variegated nature of learning in organizations: A group-level perspective. Organization Science, 13, 128–146.Google Scholar
  38. Edmondson, A. C. (2003a). Managing the risk of learning. In M. West (Ed.), International handbook of organizational teamwork (pp. 225–276). London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  39. Edmondson, A. C. (2003b). Speaking up in the operating room: How team leaders promote learning in interdisciplinary action teams. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1419–1452.Google Scholar
  40. Edmondson, A. C., Dillon, J. R., & Roloff, K. S. (2007). Three perspectives on team learning: Outcome improvement, task mastery, and group process. In A. Brief & J. Walsh (Eds.), The academy of management annals. Vol. 1. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  41. European Foundation for Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. (2007). Teamwork and high performance work organisations. Dublin: Author. Retrieved January 22, 2013, from
  42. Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking and computer conferencing: A model and tool to access cognitive presence. American Journal of Distance Education, 15, 7–23.Google Scholar
  43. Gibson, C. B. (1996). They do what they believe they can: Group-efficacy beliefs and group performance across tasks and cultures. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 138–152.Google Scholar
  44. Gibson, C. B. (2001). From knowledge accumulation to accommodation: Cycles of collective cognition in work groups. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 121–134.Google Scholar
  45. Gijbels, D., Dochy, F., Van den Bossche, P., & Segers, M. (2005). Effects of problem-based learning: A meta-analysis from the angle of assessment. Review of Educational Research, 75, 27–61.Google Scholar
  46. Gijbels, D., Van den Bossche, P., & Loyens, S. M. M. (2013). Student achievement in problem-based learning. In J. A. Hattie & E. M. Anderman (Eds.), International guide to student achievement (pp. 282–284). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Gijselaers, W. (1995). Perspectives on problem-based learning. In W. Gijselaers, D. Tempelaar, P. Keizer, J. Blommaert, E. Bernard, & H. Kasper (Eds.), Educational innovation in economics and business administration: The case of problem-based learning (pp. 39–52). Norwell: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  48. Gupta, M. L. (2004). Enhancing student performance through cooperative learning in physical sciences. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 29, 410–425.Google Scholar
  49. Guzzo, R. A., Campell, R. J., Shea, G. P., & Yost, R. J. (1993). Potency in groups: Articulating a construct. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 87–106.Google Scholar
  50. Hackman, J. R. (1987). The design of work teams. In J. Lorsch (Ed.), Handbook of organizational behavior (pp. 315–342). Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs.Google Scholar
  51. Helle, L., & Tynjälä, P. (2007). Outcomes of project-based studies and student self-regulation of learning. In P. B. Richards (Ed.), Global issues in higher education (pp. 215–235). Plaats: Nova.Google Scholar
  52. Helle, L., Tynjälä, P., & Olkinuora, E. (2006). Project-based learning in post-secondary education – Theory, practice and rubber sling shots. Higher Education, 51, 287–314.Google Scholar
  53. Helle, L., Tynjälä, P., Olkinuora, E., & Lonka, K. (2007). Ain’t nothin’ like the real thing. Motivation and study processes in university-level project studies. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 397–411.Google Scholar
  54. Hinsz, V. B., Tindale, R. S., & Vollrath, D. A. (1997). The emerging conceptualization of groups as information processors. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 43–64.Google Scholar
  55. Hirst, G., & Mann, L. (2004). A model of R&D leadership and team communication: The relationship with project performance. R &D Management, 34, 147–160.Google Scholar
  56. Homan, T. (2001). Teamleren: Theorie en facilitatie. Schoonhoven: Academic.Google Scholar
  57. Jehn, K. A. (1995). A multi-method examination of the benefits and detriments of intra-group conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 256–282.Google Scholar
  58. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1989). Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Edina: Interaction Book Company.Google Scholar
  59. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1999). Learning together and alone. Cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  60. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2003). Training for cooperative group work. In M. A. West, D. Tjosvold, & K. G. Smith (Eds.), International handbook of organizational teamwork and cooperative working (pp. 167–183). West Sussex: Wiley.Google Scholar
  61. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. (2007). The state of cooperative learning in post-secondary and professional settings. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 15–29.Google Scholar
  62. Kayes, D. C., & Burnett, G. (2006). Team learning in organizations: A review and integration (pp. 1–29). OLKC conference. Conference at the University of Warwick, Conventry.Google Scholar
  63. Kazl, E., Marsick, V. J., & Dechant, K. (1997). Teams as learners. A research-based model of team learning. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 33, 227–246.Google Scholar
  64. Kegan, R. (2000). What “form” transforms? A constructive-developmental approach to transformative learning. In J. Mezirow (Ed.), Learning in transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress (pp. 35–69). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  65. Klimoski, R. J., & Mohammed, S. (1994). Team mental model: Construct or metaphor? Journal of Management, 20, 403–437.Google Scholar
  66. Kozlowski, S. W., & Bell, B. S. (2008). Team learning, development and adaptation. In V. Sessa & M. London (Eds.), Work group learning. Understanding, improving & assessing how groups learn in organizations (pp. 15–44). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  67. Krause, U., Stark, R., & Mandl, H. (2009). The effects of cooperative learning and feedback on e-learning in statistics. Learning and Instruction, 19, 158–170.Google Scholar
  68. Krol, K., Janssen, J., Veerman, S., & Van der Linden, J. (2004). Effects of cooperative learning program on the elaboration of students working in dyads. Educational Research and Education, 10, 205–237.Google Scholar
  69. Lambiotte, J. G., Dansereau, D. F., O’Donnell, A. M., Young, M. D., Skaggs, L. P., & Hall, R. H. (1988). Effects of cooperative scripts manipulations on initial learning and transfer. Cognition and Instruction, 5, 103–121.Google Scholar
  70. Lawler, E. E., Mohrman, S. A., & Ledford, G. E. (1995). Creating high performance organizations: Practices and results of employee involvement and total quality management in Fortune 1000 companies. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  71. Lewin, K. (1939). Experiments in social space. Harvard Educational Review, 9, 21–32.Google Scholar
  72. Lewin, K., & Grabbe, S. (1945). Conduct, knowledge, and acceptance of new values. Journal of Social Issues, 1, 34–46.Google Scholar
  73. Lindsley, D. H., Brass, D. J., & Thomas, J. B. (1995). Efficacy-performance spirals: A multi-level perspective. Academy of Management Review, 20, 645–678.Google Scholar
  74. London, M., & Sessa, V. I. (2006). Group feedback for continuous learning. Human Resource Development Review, 5, 303–329.Google Scholar
  75. London, M., & Sessa, V. I. (2007). How groups learn, continuously. Human Resource Management, 46, 651–669.Google Scholar
  76. London, M., Polzer, J. T., & Omoregie, H. (2005). Interpersonal congruence, transactive memory, and feedback processes: An integrative model of group learning. Human Resource Development Review, 4, 114–135.Google Scholar
  77. Lou, Y., Abrami, P. C., & d’Apollonia, S. (2001). Small group and individual learning with technology: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 71, 449–521.Google Scholar
  78. Lynn, G. S., Skov, R. B., & Abel, K. D. (1999). Practices that support team learning and their impact on speed to market and new product success. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 16, 439–454.Google Scholar
  79. Mathieu, J., Maynard, M. T., Rapp, T., & Gilson, L. (2008). Team effectiveness 1997–2007: A review of recent advancements and a glimpse into the future. Journal of Management, 34, 410–476.Google Scholar
  80. Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709–734.Google Scholar
  81. Mesmer-Magnus, J., & DeChurch, L. (2009). Information sharing and team performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 535–546.Google Scholar
  82. Millward, L. J., Banks, A., & Riga, K. (2009). Effective self-regulating teams: A generative psychological approach. Team Performance Management, 16, 50–73.Google Scholar
  83. Moldjord, C., Fossum, L. K., & Holen, A. (2003). Coping with peacekeeping stress. In T. W. Britt & A. B. Adler (Eds.), Psychology of the peacekeeper: Lessons from the field (pp. 169–184). Westport: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.Google Scholar
  84. Mullen, B., & Copper, C. (1994). The relation between group cohesiveness and performance: An integration. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 210–227.Google Scholar
  85. Nunamaker, J. F., Dennis, A., Valacich, J., Vogel, D., & George, J. (1991). Electronic meeting systems to support group work. Communications of the ACM, 34, 40–61.Google Scholar
  86. Poole, M. S., Hollingshead, A. B., McGrath, J. E., Moreland, R. L., & Rohrbaugh, J. (2004). Interdisciplinary perspectives on small groups. Small Group Research, 35, 3–16.Google Scholar
  87. Robinson, S. L. (1996). Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(4), 574–599.Google Scholar
  88. Roschelle, J. (1992). Learning by collaborating: Convergent conceptual change. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2, 235–276.Google Scholar
  89. Roschelle, J., & Teasley, S. (1995). The construction of shared knowledge in collaborative problem solving. In C. E. O’Malley (Ed.), Computer supported collaborative learning (pp. 69–97). Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  90. Rowe, A. (2008). Unfolding the dance of team learning: A metaphorical investigation of collective learning. Management Learning, 39, 41–56.Google Scholar
  91. Rupert, J., & Jehn, K. (2006). Team learning: The development and validation of a new typology. Paper presented at the 10th international workshop on teamworking, Groningen, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  92. Salmon, D. (1932). The practical parts of Lancester’s improvements and Bell’s experiment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Savelsbergh, I. C., van der Heijden, B., & Poell, R. F. (2007). Explaining differences in team performance. Does team learning behaviour matter? Working papers management sciences. Retrieved April 18, 2009, from
  94. Savelsbergh, C. M., Storm, P., & Kuipers, B. (2008). Do leadership behaviour, team stability and task interdependence relate to team learning? In Proceedings of the WAOP (pp. 1–26). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from leadership team stability and task interdependence relate to team learning- WAOP congress- Heerlen 2008.pdf
  95. Sawyer, R. K. (2006). The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Schellens, T., Van Keer, H., De Wever, B., & Valcke, M. (2007). Scripting by assigning roles: Does it improve knowledge construction in asynchronous discussion groups? Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 2, 225–246.Google Scholar
  97. Schmidt, H. G., Van der Molen, H. T., Te Winkel, W. W. R., & Wijnen, W. H. F. W. (2009). Constructivist, problem-based learning does work: A meta-analysis of curricular comparisons involving a single medical school. Educational Psychologist, 44, 1–23.Google Scholar
  98. Senge, P. M. (1990a). The Leader’s new work: Building learning organizations. Technology, 32, 7–23.Google Scholar
  99. Senge, P. M. (1990b). The fifth discipline. The art & practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  100. Sessa, V. I., & London, M. (2006). Continuous learning in organizations. Individual, group, and organizational perspectives. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  101. Sessa, V. I., & London, M. (2008a). Interventions to stimulate group learning in organizations. Journal of Management Development, 27, 554–573.Google Scholar
  102. Sessa, V. I., & London, M. (2008b). Work group learning. Understanding, improving & assessing how groups learn in organizations. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  103. Simons, R.-J., Van der Linden, J., & Duffy, T. (2000). New learning. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  104. Slavin, R. E. (1996). Research on cooperative learning and achievement: What we know, what we need to know. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21(1), 43–69.Google Scholar
  105. Smits, P. B. A., Verbeek, J. H. A. M., & De Buisonje, C. D. (2002). Problem based learning in continuing medical education: A review of controlled evaluation studies. British Medical Journal, 321, 153–156.Google Scholar
  106. Stahl, G. (2000). Collaborative information environments to support knowledge construction by communities. AI & Society, 14, 1–27.Google Scholar
  107. Sterman, J. D. (1994). Learning in and about complex systems. System Dynamics Review, 10, 291–341.Google Scholar
  108. Steyaert, C., Bouwen, R., & Van Looy, B. (1996). Conversational construction of new meaning configurations in organizational innovation: A generative approach. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5, 67–89.Google Scholar
  109. Sugrue, B. (1995). A theory-based framework for assessing domain-specific problem solving ability. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 14, 29–36.Google Scholar
  110. Sundström, E., de Meuse, K. P., & Futrell, D. (1990). Work teams: Application and effectiveness. American Psychologist, 45, 120–133.Google Scholar
  111. Sweet, M., & Michaelsen, L. (2007). How group dynamics research can inform the theory and practice of postsecondary small group learning. Educational Psychology Review, 19(1), 31–47.Google Scholar
  112. Tannenbaum, S. I., Smith-Jentsch, K., & Behson, S. J. (1998). Training team leaders to facilitate team learning and performance. In J. Cannon-Bowers & E. Salas (Eds.), Making decisions under stress: Implications for individual and team training (pp. 247–270). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  113. Topping, K. J., & Ehly, S. W. (2001). Peer assisted learning: A framework for consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 12, 113–132.Google Scholar
  114. Tynjälä, P., & Gijbels, D. (2012). Changing world: Changing pedagogy. In P. Tynjälä, M. L. Stenström, & M. Saarnivaara (Eds.), Transitions and transformations in learning and education (pp. 205–222). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  115. Tynjälä, P., Pirhonen, M., Vartiainen, T., & Helle, L. (2009). Educating IT project managers through project-based learning: A working-life perspective. The Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 24, 270–288.Google Scholar
  116. van de Vliert, E., & Euwema, M. (1994). Agreeableness and activeness as components of conflict behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 674–687.Google Scholar
  117. Van den Bergh, V., Mortelmans, D., Spooren, P., Van Petegem, P., Gijbels, D., & Vanthournout, G. (2006). New modes of assessment within project-based education – The stakeholders. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 32, 345–368.Google Scholar
  118. Van den Bossche, P. (2006). Minds in teams. The influence of social and cognitive factors on team learning. Maastricht: Datawyse.Google Scholar
  119. Van den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W. H., Segers, M., & Woltjer, G. (2005). Sharing expertise in management: A study on team learning and its effect on shared mental models. Paper presented at the Academy of Management, Hawaii.Google Scholar
  120. Van den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W. H., Segers, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2006). Social and cognitive factors driving teamwork in collaborative learning environments: Team learning beliefs and behaviours. Small Group Research, 37, 490–521.Google Scholar
  121. Van Woerkom, M., & Croon, M. (2009). The relationships between team learning activities and team performance. Personnel Review, 38, 560–577.Google Scholar
  122. Veestraeten, M., Kyndt, E., & Dochy, F. (2014). Investigating team learning in a military context. Vocations and Learning, 7(1), 75–100.Google Scholar
  123. Vermunt, J. (1992). Leerstijlen en sturen van leerprocessen in het hoger onderwijs: Naar procesgerichte instructie in zelfstandig denken. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  124. Vernon, D. T. A., & Blake, R. L. (1993). Does problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluative research. Academic Medicine, 68, 550–563.Google Scholar
  125. Verpoorten, L., Gijbels, D., & Donche, V. (2010). Projectgebaseerd leren: Zelfregulering en leeropbrengsten, congruenties en fricties bij deelname aan projectwerk in de master opleidings- en onderwijswetenschappen. Paper gepresenteerd op de eerste posterbeurs OOW, Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerpen.Google Scholar
  126. Vygotsky, L. S. (1979). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Wageman, R. (1995). Interdependence and group effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 145–180.Google Scholar
  128. Walker, A., & Leary, H. (2009). A problem based learning meta-analysis: Differences across problem types, implementation types, disciplines, and assessment levels. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 3, 12–43.Google Scholar
  129. Webb, N., & Palincsar, A. S. (1996). Small group processes. In D. Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.), The handbook of educational psychology (pp. 841–873). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  130. Wegner, D. M., Erber, R., & Raymond, P. (1991). Transactive memory in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 923–929.Google Scholar
  131. Weick, K. E., & Roberts, K. H. (1993). Collective mind in organizations: Heedful interrelating on flight decks. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 357–381.Google Scholar
  132. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice. Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  133. West, M. (2000). Reflexivity, revolution, and innovation in work teams. Advances in Interdisciplinary Studies of Work Teams, 5, 1–29.Google Scholar
  134. West, M. (2002). Sparkling fountains or stagnant ponds: An integrative model of creativity and innovation implementation in work groups. Applied Psychology. An International Review, 51, 355–424.Google Scholar
  135. West, M. (2004). Do teams work? In M. A. West (Ed.), Effective teamwork: Practical lessons from organizational research (2nd ed., pp. 7–26). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  136. Wilson, J. M., Goodman, P. S., & Cronin, M. A. (2007). Group learning. Academy of Management Review, 32, 1041–1059.Google Scholar
  137. Zaccaro, S. J., Ely, K., & Shuffler, M. (2008). The leader’s role in group learning. In I. Sessa & M. London (Eds.), Work group learning. Understanding, improving & assessing how groups learn in organizations (pp. 193–214). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Filip Dochy
    • 1
    Email author
  • David Gijbels
    • 2
  • Elisabeth Raes
    • 1
  • Eva Kyndt
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Research on Professional Learning and Development, Corporate Training and Lifelong LearningUniversity of LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Institute for Education and Information SciencesUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium

Personalised recommendations