Simulation Learning

  • Jan Breckwoldt
  • Hans GruberEmail author
  • Andreas Wittmann
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)


An overview is presented of the strengths and limitations of simulation learning, with a particular focus on simulation learning in medicine and health care. We present what simulation learning is about and what the main components of simulations are. The most important theoretical approaches are reviewed which were developed in order to explain why simulation learning is effective. The most prominent best-practice examples of simulation learning applications are presented, and a short overview on research findings concerning simulation learning is given.


Simulation learning High-fidelity full scale environment Deliberate practice Experience Interprofessional education Learning outcomes Practice-based learning Professional learning Skill acquisition 



This paper was written during a sabbatical stay of the second author as Visiting Professor at the Centre for Learning Research, University of Turku, Finland.


  1. Adamo, G. (2003). Simulated and standardized patients in OSCEs: Achievements and challenges 1992–2003. Medical Teacher, 25, 262–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akaike, M., Fukutomi, M., Nagamune, M., Fujimoto, A., Tsujim, A., Ishida, K., & Iwata, T. (2012). Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory. The Journal of Medical Investigation, 59, 28–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arriaga, A. F., Bader, A. M., Wong, J. M., Lipsitz, S. R., Berry, W. R., Ziewacz, J. E., Hepner, D. L., Boorman, D. J., Pozner, C. N., Smink, D. S., & Gawande, A. A. (2013). Simulation-based trial of surgical-crisis checklists. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368, 246–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arthur, W., Bennett, W., Stanush, P. L., & McNelly, T. L. (1998). Factors that influence skill decay and retention: A quantitative review and analysis. Human Performance, 11, 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bangert-Drowns, R., Kulik, C., Kulik, J., & Morgan, M. (1991). The instructional effect of feedback in test-like events. Review of Educational Research, 61, 213–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bogenstätter, Y., Tschan, F., Semmer, N. K., Spychiger, M., Breuer, M., & Marsch, S. (2009). How accurate is information transmitted to medical professionals joining a medical emergency? A simulator study. Human Factors, 51, 115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bokken, L., Linssen, T., Scherpbier, A. J., Van der Vleuten, C. P., & Rethans, J. J. (2009). Feedback by simulated patients in undergraduate medical education: A systematic review of the literature. Medical Education, 43, 202–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradley, P., & Postlethwaite, K. (2003). Simulation in clinical learning. Medical Education, 37, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bryan, R., Kreuter, M., & Brownson, R. (2009). Integrating adult learning principles into training for public health practice. Health Promotion Practice, 10, 557–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Camp, B. N., Parish, D. C., & Andrews, R. H. (1997). Effect of advanced cardiac life support training on resuscitation efforts and survival in a rural hospital. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 29, 529–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cannon-Bowers, J. A., & Salas, E. (1997). A framework for developing team performance measures in training. In M. T. Brannick, E. Salas, & C. Prince (Eds.), Team performance and measurement: Theory, methods, and applications (pp. 45–62). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Cauraugh, J. H., Martin, M., & Martin, K. K. (1999). Modeling surgical expertise for motor skill acquisition. The American Journal of Surgery, 177, 331–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooper, S. (2001). Developing leaders for advanced life support: Evaluation of a training programme. Resuscitation, 49, 33–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooper, S., Endacott, R., & Cant, R. (2010). Measuring non-technical skills in medical emergency care: A review of assessment measures. Open Access Emergency Medicine, 2, 7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davis, D. A., Mazmanian, P. E., Fordis, M., Van Harrison, R., Thorpe, K. E., & Perrier, L. (2006). Accuracy of physician self-assessment compared with observed measures of competence: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296, 1094–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Degner, S., & Gruber, H. (2011). Persons in the shadow: How guidance works in the acquisition of expertise. In B. Weber, E. Marsal, & T. Dobashi (Eds.), The politics of empathy. New interdisciplinary perspectives on an ancient phenomenon (pp. 103–116). Münster: Lit.Google Scholar
  17. Dekkers, J., & Donatti, S. (1981). The integration of research studies on the use of simulation as an instruction strategy. Journal of Educational Research, 74, 424–427.Google Scholar
  18. Domuracki, K. J., Moule, C. J., Owen, H., Kostandoff, G., & Plummer, J. L. (2008). Learning on a simulator does transfer to clinical practice. Resuscitation, 80, 346–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dooley, K. (2002). Simulation research methods. In J. Baum (Ed.), Companion to organizations (pp. 829–848). London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  20. Driessen, E., Van Tartwijk, J., & Dornan, T. (2008). The self critical doctor: Helping students become more reflective. British Medical Journal, 336, 827–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dunn, W. F. (Ed.). (2001). Simulators in critical care medicine and beyond. Des Plaines: Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) Press.Google Scholar
  22. Ericsson, K. A. (2004). Deliberate practice and the acquisition and maintenance of expert performance in medicine and related domains. Academic Medicine, 79, S70–S81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Evans, L. V., Dodge, K. L., Shah, T. D., Kaplan, L. J., Siegel, M. D., Moore, C. L., Hamann, C. J., Lin, Z., & D’Onofrio, G. (2010). Simulation training in central venous catheter insertion: Improved performance in clinical practice. Academic Medicine, 85, 1462–1469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fanning, R. M., & Gaba, D. M. (2007). The role of debriefing in simulation-based learning. Simulation in Healthcare, 2, 115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) & National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). (n.d.). United States medical license examination. Dallas/Philadelphia: Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States/National Board of Medical Examiners. Retrieved February 4, 2013, from
  27. Fischer, H., Neuhold, S., Hochbrugger, E., Steinlechner, B., Koinig, H., Milosevic, L., Havel, C., Frantal, S., & Greif, R. (2011). Quality of resuscitation: Flight attendants in an airplane simulator use a new mechanical resuscitation device. A randomized simulation study. Resuscitation, 82, 459–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gaba, D. M. (2004). The future vision of simulation in health care. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 13, i2–i10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gaba, D. M., Howard, S. K., Fish, K. J., Smith, B. E., & Sowb, Y. A. (2001). Simulation-based training in anaesthesia crisis resource management (ACRM): A decade of experience. Simulation and Gaming, 32, 175–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gaba, D. M., Howard, S. K., Flanagan, B., Brendan, F., Smith, B. E., Fish, K. J., & Botney, R. (1998). Assessment of clinical performance during simulated crises using both technical and behavioral ratings. Anesthesiology, 89, 8–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gartmeier, M., Bauer, J., Gruber, H., & Heid, H. (2008a). Negative knowledge: Understanding professional learning and expertise. Vocations and Learning: Studies in Vocational and Professional Education, 1, 87–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gartmeier, M., Kipfmueller, S., Heid, H., & Gruber, H. (2008b). Reflection and professional competence. In S. Billett, C. Harteis, & A. Eteläpelto (Eds.), Emerging perspectives of workplace learning (pp. 131–147). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  33. Graf, B. M., & Grube, C. (2004). Kosten-Nutzen-Relation der Anästhesiesimulation [Cost-benefit analysis of anaesthesia simulation]. Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie, 39, 237–240.Google Scholar
  34. Grube, C., Volk, S., Zausig, Y., & Graf, B. M. (2001). Changing Culture – Simulatortraining als Mittel zur erhöhten Patientensicherheit [Changing culture – Simulation training as a tool to enhance patient safety]. Der Anaesthesist, 50, 358–362.Google Scholar
  35. Gruber, H., Lehtinen, E., Palonen, T., & Degner, S. (2008). Persons in the shadow: Assessing the social context of high abilities. Psychology Science Quarterly, 50, 237–258.Google Scholar
  36. Hallikainen, J., Väisänen, O., Randell, T., Tarkkila, P., Rosenberg, P. H., & Niemi-Murola, L. (2009). Teaching anaesthesia induction to medical students: Comparison between full-scale simulation and supervised teaching in the operating theatre. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 26, 101–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hallikainen, J., Väisänen, O., Rosenberg, P. H., Silfvast, T., & Niemi-Murola, L. (2007). Interprofessional education of medical students and paramedics in emergency medicine. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 51, 372–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77, 81–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hays, R. T., Jacobs, J. W., Prince, C., & Salas, E. (1992). Flight simulator training effectiveness: A meta-analysis. Military Psychology, 4, 63–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hill, R., Hooper, C., & Wahl, S. (2000). Look, learn, and be satisfied: Video playback as a learning strategy to improve clinical skills performance. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, 16, 232–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Høyer, C. B., Christensen, E. F., & Eika, B. (2009). Junior physician skill and behaviour in resuscitation: A simulation study. Resuscitation, 80, 244–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hoyt, D. B., Shackford, S. R., Fridland, P. H., Mackersie, R. C., Hansbrough, J. F., Wachtel, T. L., & Fortune, J. B. (1988). Video recording trauma resuscitations: An effective teaching technique. The Journal of Trauma, 28, 435–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hunziker, S., Tschan, F., Semmer, N. K., Howell, M. D., & Marsch, S. (2010). Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock, 3, 389–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Isbye, D. L., Rasmussen, L. S., Ringsted, C., & Lippert, F. K. (2007). Disseminating cardiopulmonary resuscitation training by distributing 35,000 personal manikins among school children. Circulation, 116, 1380–1385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Issenberg, S. B., McGaghie, W. C., Hart, I. R., Mayer, J. W., Felner, J. M., Petrusa, E. R., Waugh, R. A., Brown, D. D., Safford, R. R., Gessner, I. H., Gordon, D. L., & Ewy, G. A. (1999). Simulation technology for health care professional skills training and assessment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 861–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Issenberg, S. B., McGaghie, W. C., Petrusa, E. R., Gordon, D., & Scalese, R. J. (2005). Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: A BEME systematic review. Medical Teacher, 27, 10–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kiessling, C., Dieterich, A., Fabry, G., Hölzer, H., Langewitz, W., Mühlinghaus, I., Pruskil, S., Scheffer, S., & Schubert, S. (2010). Communication and social competencies in medical education in German-speaking countries: The Basel consensus statement. Patient Education and Counseling, 81, 259–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experimental learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  49. Lamb, D. (2007). Could simulated emergency procedures practised in a static environment improve the clinical performance of a critical care support team (CCST)? A literature review. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 23(1), 33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lehmann, A. C. (2002). Effort and enjoyment in deliberate practice: A research note. In I. M. Hanken, S. G. Nielsen, & M. Nerland (Eds.), Research in and for music education (pp. 153–166). Oslo: Norwegian Academy of Music.Google Scholar
  52. Lehmann, A. C., & Ericsson, K. A. (2003). Expertise. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of cognitive science (Vol. 2, pp. 79–85). London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  53. Leonard, M., Graham, S., & Bonacum, D. (2004). The human factor: The critical importance of effective teamwork and communication in providing safe care. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 13, i85–i90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lingemann, K., Campbell, T., Lingemann, C., Hölzer, H., & Breckwoldt, J. (2012). The simulated patient’s view on teaching: Results from a think aloud study. Academic Medicine, 87, 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lorem, T., Palm, A., & Wik, L. (2008). Impact of a self-instruction CPR kit on 7th graders’ and adults’ skills and CPR performance. Resuscitation, 79, 103–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lupien, A., & George-Gay, B. (2001). High-fidelity patient simulation. In A. Lowenstein & M. Bradshaw (Eds.), Fuszard’s innovative teaching strategies in nursing (pp. 134–148). Gaithersburg: Aspen.Google Scholar
  57. Makker, R., Gray-Siracusa, K., & Evers, M. (1995). Evaluation of advanced cardiac life support in a community teaching hospital by use of actual cardiac arrests. Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care, 24, 116–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Maran, N. J., & Glavin, R. J. (2003). Low- to high-fidelity simulation – a continuum of medical education? Medical Education, 37, S22–S28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marsch, S. C., Müller, C., Marquardt, K., Conrad, G., Tschan, F., & Hunziker, P. R. (2004). Human factors affect the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in simulated cardiac arrests. Resuscitation, 60, 51–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Marsch, S. C., Tschan, F., Semmer, N., Spychiger, M., Breuer, M., & Hunziker, P. R. (2005). Unnecessary interruptions of cardiac massage during simulated cardiac arrests. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 22, 831–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McFetrich, J. (2006). A structured literature review on the use of high-fidelity patient simulators for teaching in emergency medicine. Emergency Medical Journal, 23, 509–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McGaghie, W. C., Issenberg, S. B., Cohen, E. R., Barsuk, J. H., & Wayne, D. B. (2011). Does simulation-based medical education with deliberate practice yield better results than traditional clinical education? A meta-analytic comparative review of the evidence. Academic Medicine, 86, 706–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McGaghie, W. C., Issenberg, S. B., Petrusa, E. R., & Scalese, R. J. (2010). A critical review of simulation-based medical education research: 2003–2009. Medical Education, 44, 50–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Medley, C., & Horne, C. (2005). Using simulation technology for undergraduate nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 44(1), 31–34.Google Scholar
  65. Morgan, P. J., Tarshis, J., LeBlanc, V., Cleave-Hogg, D., DeSousa, S., Haley, M. F., Herold-McIlroy, J., & Law, J. A. (2009). Efficacy of high-fidelity simulation debriefing on the performance of practicing anaesthetists in simulated scenarios. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 103, 531–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Morrison, E. H., Rucker, L., Boker, J. R., Gabbert, C. C., Hubbell, F. A., Hitchcock, M. A., & Prislin, M. D. (2004). The effect of a 13-hour curriculum to improve residents’ teaching skills. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141, 257–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nestel, D., Groom, J., Eikeland-Husebø, S., & O’Donnell, J. M. (2011). Simulation for learning and teaching procedural skills: The state of the science. Simulation in Healthcare, 6, S10–S13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nilsen, S., & Baerheim, A. (2005). Feedback on video recorded consultations in medical teaching: Why students loathe and love it – a focus-group based qualitative study. BMC Medical Education, 5, 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Norman, G., Dore, K., & Grierson, L. (2012). The minimal relationship between simulation fidelity and transfer of learning. Medical Education, 46, 636–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Okuda, Y., & Quinones, J. (2008). The use of simulation in the education of emergency care providers for cardiac emergencies. International Journal of Emergency Medicine, 1, 73–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Okuda, Y., Bryson, E. O., DeMaria, S., Jacobson, L., Quinones, J., Shen, B., & Levine, A. I. (2009). The utility of simulation in medical education: What is the evidence? Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 76, 330–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Perkins, G. D. (2007). Simulation in resuscitation training. Resuscitation, 73, 202–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pottle, A., & Brant, S. (2000). Does resuscitation training affect outcome from cardiac arrest? Accident and Emergency Nursing, 8, 46–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rall, M., Manser, T., & Howard, S. (2000). Key elements of debriefing for simulator training. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 17, 516–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Roesch, A., Gruber, H., Hawelka, B., Hamm, H., Arnold, N., Popal, H., & Stolz, W. (2003). Computer assisted learning in medicine: A long-term evaluation of the “Practical Training Programme Dermatology 2000”. Medical Informatics and the Internet in Medicine, 28, 147–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rogers, D. A., Regehr, G., Yeh, K. A., & Howdieshell, T. R. (1998). Computer-assisted learning versus a lecture and feedback seminar for teaching a basic surgical technical skill. The American Journal of Surgery, 175, 508–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rudolph, J. W., Simon, R., Dufresne, R. L., & Raemer, D. B. (2006). There’s no such thing as “Nonjudgmental” debriefing: A theory and method for debriefing with good judgment. Simulation in Healthcare, 1(1), 49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sanders, A. B., Berg, R. A., Burress, M., Genova, R. T., Kern, K. B., & Ewy, G. A. (1994). The efficacy of an ACLS training program for resuscitation from cardiac arrest in a rural community. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 23, 56–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Savoldelli, G. L., Naik, V. N., Hamstra, S. J., & Morgan, P. J. (2005). Barriers to the use of simulation-based education. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 52, 944–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Savoldelli, G. L., Naik, V. N., Park, J., Joo, H. S., Chow, R., & Hamstra, S. J. (2006). Value of debriefing during simulated crisis management: Oral versus video-assisted oral feedback. Anesthesiology, 105, 279–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Scherer, L. A., Chang, M. C., Meredith, J. W., & Battistella, F. D. (2003). Videotape review leads to rapid and sustained learning. The American Journal of Surgery, 185, 516–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Seropian, M. A. (2003). General concepts in full scale simulation: Getting started. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 97, 1695–1705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. SIMMED – Joint project between Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Archimedes. (n.d.). Retrieved February 4, 2013, from
  84. Skorning, M., Bergrath, S., Rörtgen, D., Beckers, S. K., Brokmann, J. C., Gillmann, B., Herding, J., Protogerakis, M., Fitzner, C., Rossaint, R., & Med-on-@ix-Working Group. (2012). Teleconsultation in pre-hospital emergency medical services: Real-time telemedical support in a prospective controlled simulation study. Resuscitation, 83, 626–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Smith, K. K., Gilcreast, D., & Pierce, K. (2008). Evaluation of staff’s retention of ACLS and BLS skills. Resuscitation, 78, 59–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sostmann, K., Hoeffe, J., Mueller, S., Krude, H., & Gaedicke, G. (2008). New methods and trends in paediatric education. Undergraduate training. Paediatriki, 71, 1–4.Google Scholar
  87. Spooner, B. B., Fallaha, J. F., Kocierz, L., Smith, C. M., Smith, S. C. L., & Perkins, G. D. (2007). An evaluation of objective feedback in basic life support (BLS) training. Resuscitation, 73, 417–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sternberg, R. J., Forsythe, G. B., Hedlund, J., Horvath, J. A., Wagner, R. K., Williams, W. M., Snook, S. A., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2000). Practical intelligence in everyday life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Studienhospital Münster [Simulation Hospital Muenster]. (n.d.). Retrieved February 4, 2013, from
  90. Swiss Confederation. (2012). Informationen zur eidgenössischen Prüfung Humanmedizin gemäss Medizinalberufegesetz MedBG [Information for the federal states examination in human medicine]. Retrieved February 4, 2013, from
  91. Teteris, E., Fraser, K., Wright, B., & McLaughlin, K. (2012). Does training learners on simulators benefit real patients? Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice, 17, 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Van de Wiel, M. W., Van den Bossche, P., Janssen, S., & Jossberger, H. (2011). Exploring deliberate practice in medicine: How do physicians learn in the workplace? Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice, 16, 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wayne, D. B., Butter, J., Siddall, V. J., Fudala, M. J., Linquist, L. A., Feinglass, J., Wade, L. D., & McGaghie, W. C. (2005). Simulation-based training of internal medicine residents in advanced cardiac life support protocols: A randomized trial. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 17, 202–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wayne, D. B., Butter, J., Siddall, V. J., Fudala, M. J., Wade, L. D., Feinglass, J., & McGaghie, W. C. (2006). Mastery learning of advanced cardiac life support skills by internal medicine residents using simulation technology and deliberate practice. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21, 251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wayne, D. B., Didwania, A., Feinglass, J., Fudala, M. J., Barsuk, J. H., & McGaghie, W. C. (2008). Simulation-based education improves quality of care during cardiac arrest team responses at an academic teaching hospital: A case-control study. Chest, 133, 56–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Weller, J., Frengley, R., Torrie, J., Shulruf, B., Jolly, B., Hopley, L., Hendersdon, K., Dzendrowskyj, P., Yee, B., & Paul, A. (2011). Evaluation of an instrument to measure teamwork in multidisciplinary critical care teams. BMJ Quality and Safety, 20, 216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wind, L. A., Van Dalen, J., Muijtjens, A. M. M., & Rethans, J. J. (2004). Assessing simulated patients in an educational setting: The MaSP (Maastricht Assessment of Simulated Patients). Medical Education, 38, 39–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Woollard, M., Whitfield, R., Newcombe, R. G., Colquhoun, M., Vetter, N., & Chamberlain, D. (2006). Optimal refresher training intervals for AED and CPR skills: A randomised controlled trial. Resuscitation, 71, 237–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zausig, Y., Grube, C., Boeker-Blum, T., Busch, C. J., Bayer, Y., Sinner, B., Zink, W., Schaper, N., & Graf, B. M. (2009). Inefficacy of simulator-based training on anaesthesiologists’ non-technical skills. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 53, 611–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ziv, A., Ben-David, S., & Ziv, M. (2005). Simulation based medical education: An opportunity to learn from errors. Medical Teacher, 27, 193–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ziv, A., Small, S. D., & Wolpe, P. R. (2000). Patient safety and simulation based medical education. Medical Teacher, 22, 489–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. SIMMED – Joint project between Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Archimedes. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2014.
  2. Studienhospital Münster [Simulation Hospital Muenster]. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2014.
  3. Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) & National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME®). (n.d.). United States medical license examination. Retrieved March 22, 2014.
  4. Swiss Confederation. (2012). Informa-tionen zur eidgenössischen Prüfung Humanmedizin gemäss Medizinalberufegesetz MedBG [Information for the federal states examination in human medicine]. Retrieved March 22, 2014.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vice-Deanery of Education, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Institute of Educational ScienceUniversity of RegensburgRegensburgGermany

Personalised recommendations