Advertisement

Interprofessional Education in the Health Workplace

  • Elizabeth Katherine MolloyEmail author
  • Louise Greenstock
  • Patrick Fiddes
  • Catriona Fraser
  • Peter Brooks
Chapter
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)

Abstract

Interprofessional education has served as a long-standing topic of interest in the health professions education community, mainly because of its reported capacity to develop the learner’s disposition for team-based practice. This chapter synthesises the findings from the health professional literature and focuses specifically on the impact of interprofessional education on students within clinical placements. The review sets the scene for the reporting of an empirical study conducted by the authors, examining medical students’ experiences of an interprofessional education placement. Medical students who rotated through the targeted interprofessional placement were interviewed via focus groups to elicit their experiences of the initiative. Their perspectives on how the context and the activities within the placement influenced their ability to learn ‘with, from and about’ other professionals were captured and analysed. Only a small percentage of participants reported that the workplace environment adequately supported opportunities for engagement with other professionals. The medical students, while able to voice the advantages of interprofessional practice “once they become” a practitioner, saw the agenda as relatively low on their priority list as busy students, subject to regular assessments of their ‘doctoring’ competencies. The results challenge the cheerfully optimistic literature on interprofessional education. It may be useful to acknowledge the resistance learners have in learning about other professions or disciplines when they have a fixed target of professional membership in sight. Undergraduate students seem to make judgements about what is important to learn, and who are the most legitimate models to learn from, very early in their curriculum. Students look to summative assessment as a key device to help differentiate the core from the peripheral within their program of study.

Keywords

Interprofessional education Interprofessional practice Workplace learning Health professions Curriculum design 

References

  1. Abdel-Halim, R. (2006). Clinical methods and team work: 1,000 years ago. The American Journal of Surgery, 191, 289–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison, S. (2007). Up a river! Interprofessional education and the Canadian healthcare professional of the future. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 21, 565–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, E., Manek, N., & Davidson, A. (2006). Evaluation of a model for maximising interprofessional education in an acute hospital. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 20(2), 182–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, E., Lennox, A., & Kinnair, D. (2012). Interprofessional education and collaborative practice. ATBHV1 KOBE 2012: Abstract Or-3(#100776).Google Scholar
  5. Barr, H. (2005). Interprofessional education: Today, yesterday and tomorrow: A review (pp. 8–14). Retrieved October 5, 2011. http://www.health.heacademy.ac.uk/publications/occ
  6. Barr, H. (2011). Developing interprofessional education in health and social care courses in the United Kingdom (Occasional Paper No. 12). Retrieved August 24, 2012. http://www.health.heacademy.ac.uk
  7. Billett, S. (2006). Constituting the workplace curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 38, 31–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boud, D. (2000). Sustainable assessment: Rethinking assessment for the learning society. Studies in Continuing Education, 22(2), 151–167. doi: 10.1080/713695728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boud, D., & Molloy, E. (2012). Rethinking models of feedback for learning: The challenge of design. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 38(6), 698–712. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2012.691462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bywood, P., Jackson-Bowers, E., & Muecke, S. (2011). Initiatives to integrate primary and acute healthcare, including ambulatory care services (PHC RIS Policy Issue Review). Adelaide: Primary Health Care Research and Information Service.Google Scholar
  11. Chumley, H., Olney, C., Usatine, R., & Dobbie, A. (2005). A short transitional course can help medical students prepare for clinical learning. Family Medicine, 37, 496–501.Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, H. (2010). ‘Learning in interprofessional teams; Viewpoint’, AMEE Guide supplement 38.2. Medical Teacher, 32, 434–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. D’Eon, M. (2004). A blueprint for interprofessional learning. Medical Teacher, 7, 604–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davidson, M., Smith, R., & Dodd, K. (2008). Interprofessional clinical education: A systematic review. Australian Health Review, 32(1), 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davidson, M., Smith, R., & Stone, N. (2009). Interprofessional education: Sharing the wealth. In C. Delany & E. Molloy (Eds.), Clinical education in the health professions (pp. 70–91). Sydney: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  16. Delany, C., & Molloy, E. (2009). Clinical education in the health professions. Chatswood: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  17. Finch, J. (2000). Interprofessional education and team working: A view from the education providers. British Medical Journal, 321, 1138–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hall, P. (2005). Interprofessional teamwork: Professional cultures as barriers. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 19(Supp 1), 188–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hammick, M., Freeth, D., Koppel, I., Reeves, S., & Barrm, H. (2007). ‘A best evidence systematic review of interprofessional education’. BEME Guide no. 9. Medical Teacher, 29, 735–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hammick, M., Olckers, L., & Campion-Smith, C. (2009a). ‘Learning in interprofessional teams’. AMEE Guide no. 38. Medical Teacher, 31, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hammick, M., Freeth, D., Copperman, J., & Goodsman, D. (2009b). Being interprofessional. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  22. Hartford. (1953, November 18). The Hartford Courant (1923–1984); Hartford, Conn.Google Scholar
  23. Hudson, J., Weston, K., Farmer, E., Ivers, R., & Pearson, R. (2010). Are patients willing participants in the new wave of community-based medical education in regional and rural Australia. Medical Journal of Australia, 192, 150–153.Google Scholar
  24. Illinois, A. (1969). Continuing education for the health professions. Report of an Interprofessional Task Force. University of Illinois College of Medicine Center for the Study of Medical Education. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 26, 4–17.Google Scholar
  25. Kent, F., & Keating, J. (2013). Patient outcomes from a student led interprofessional clinic in primary care. Journal Interprofessional Care, Posted online 19th February 2013. doi: 10.3109/13561820.2013.767226
  26. Kent, F., Keating, J., & Martin, N. (2012). Supporting the needs of older patients after hospital admissions: An interprofessional education initiative in primary care. ATBHV1 Kobe 2012. Or-54 (#10117).Google Scholar
  27. Kirkpatrick, D. (1994). Evaluating training programs. San Francisco: Berrett-Kohlers.Google Scholar
  28. Margalit, R. (2009). From professional silos to interprofessional education: Campus wide focus on quality of care. Quality Management in Health Care, 18, 165–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miles, M., & Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  30. Molloy, E. (2009). Time to pause: Feedback. In C. Delany & E. Molloy (Eds.), Clinical education in the health professions (pp. 128–146). Sydney: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  31. Molloy, E., & Keating, J. (2011). Targeted preparation for clinical practice. In S. Billet (Ed.), Promoting professional learning: Integrating experiences in university and practice settings (pp. 59–82). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Molloy, E., Borello, F., & Epstein, R. (2013). The impact of emotion in feedback. In D. Boud & E. Molloy (Eds.), Effective feedback in higher education (pp. 50–72). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Nelson, G. (1998). Nothing about me, without me: Participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organisations for psychiatric consumers/survivors. American Journal of Communication in Psychology, 26, 881–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nestel, D., Walker, K., Simon, R., Aggarwal, R., & Andreatta, P. (2011). Nontechnical skills: An inaccurate and unhelpful descriptor? Simulation in Healthcare, 6(1), 2–3.Google Scholar
  35. Osler, W. (1903). The hospital as a college; Aequanimatus and other addresses. London: H. H. Lewis.Google Scholar
  36. Parsell, G. (1998). Interprofessional learning. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 74, 89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Parsell, G. (1999). The development of a questionnaire to assess the readiness of health care students for interprofesssional learning. Medical Education, 33, 95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Piterman, L., Newton, J. M., & Canny, B. (2010). Interprofessional education for interprofessional practice: Does it make a difference? Medical Journal of Australia, 193(2), 92.Google Scholar
  39. Prince, K., Boshuizen, H., van der Vleuren, C., & Scherpier, A. (2005). Students’ opinions about their preparation for clinical practice. Medical Education, 39, 704–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ramsden, P. (1992). Learning to teach in higher education. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Reeves, S. (2010). Interprofessional teamwork for health and social care. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reeves, S., Freeth, D., McRorie, P., & Perry, D. (2002). “It teaches you what to expect in the future”: Interprofessional learning on a training ward for medical, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students. Medical Education, 36(4), 337–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Reeves, S., Zwarenstein, M., Goldman, J., Barr, H., Freeth, D., Hammick, M., Koppel, I. (2008). Interprofessional education: Effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 3, CD002213.Google Scholar
  44. Slote, M. (2007). The ethics of care and empathy. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. Small, R., Soriano, R., Chietero, M., Quintana, J., Parkas, V., & Koestler, J. (2008). Easing the transition: Medical students’ perceptions of critical skills required for the clerkships. Education for Health, 20(3), 1–9.Google Scholar
  46. Stewart, M. (2001). Toward a global definition for patient centred care: The patient should be the judge of patient centred care. British Medical Journal, 322, 444–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thistlethwaite, J. (2007). Interprofessional education in Australia. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 21, 369–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zwarenstein, M. (2009). Interprofessional collaboration: Effects of practice-based interventions on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, CD000072.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth Katherine Molloy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Louise Greenstock
    • 2
  • Patrick Fiddes
    • 3
  • Catriona Fraser
    • 4
  • Peter Brooks
    • 4
  1. 1.Health Professions Education and Educational Research (HealthPEER) Department, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health SciencesMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Health Workforce InstituteUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health SciencesMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Australian Health Workforce InstituteUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations