Advertisement

Transitions to Working Life: Securing Professional Competence

  • Päivi TynjäläEmail author
  • Jennifer M. Newton
Chapter
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)

Abstract

This chapter examines the transition from education to work as a critical phase of professional career and the development of professional competence. Literature on transition to working life has brought up several challenges that many graduates meet in early stages of their career such as threat of unemployment, inadequate knowledge and skills, decreased self-efficacy and increased stress, instability of professional identity, early attrition and changing occupation, newcomers’ role and position in a work community, and the importance of workplace learning. This chapter examines each of these challenges from the professional competence point of view. Special attention is paid to the role of social partnerships in meeting the challenges.

Keywords

School-to-work transitions Professional competence Partnerships Challenges of newly graduated Youth unemployment 

References

  1. Andersson, P. L., & Edberg, A. (2010). The transition from rookie to genuine nurse: Narratives from Swedish nurses 1 year after graduation. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 41(4), 186–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aspfors, J., Hansén, S.-E., Tynjälä, P., Heikkinen, H. L. T., & Jokinen, H. (2012). Lessons learnt from peer-group mentoring experiments. In H. L. T. Heikkinen, H. Jokinen, & P. Tynjälä (Eds.), Peer-group mentoring for teacher development (pp. 131–143). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Betti, G., Lemmi, A., & Verma, V. (2005). A comparative analysis of school-to-work transitions in European Union. Innovation, 18(4), 419–442.Google Scholar
  4. Billett, S. (2004). Learning through work: Workplace participatory practices. In H. Rainbird, A. Fuller, & A. Munro (Eds.), Workplace learning in context (pp. 109–125). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Billett, S., & Henderson, A. (2011). Promoting professional learning: Integrating experiences in university and practice settings. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Billett, S., & Newton, J. (2010). Learning practice: Conceptualising professional lifelong learning for the healthcare sector. In N. Frost, M. Zukas, H. Bradbury, & S. Kilminister (Eds.), Beyond reflective practice: New approaches to professional lifelong learning. London: Routledge. ISBN 10-0-425-46792-6.Google Scholar
  7. Billett, S., & Seddon, T. (2004). Building community through social partnerships around vocational education and training. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 56(1), 51–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Billett, S., Newton, J. M., & Ockerby, C. (2010). Becoming a nurse: Premises for selecting and engaging in an occupation. Studies in the Education of Adults, 1(42), 47–62.Google Scholar
  9. Billett, S., Johnson, G., Thomas, S., Sim, C., Hay, S., & Ryan, J. (Eds.). (2012). Experiences of school transitions: Policies, practice and participants. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  10. Crebert, G., Bates, M., Bell, B., Patrick, C.-J., & Cragnolini, V. (2004). Ivory tower to concrete jungle revisited. Journal of Education and Work, 17(1), 47–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deitmer, L., & Heinemann, L. (2009). Evaluation approaches for workplace learning partnerships in VET: Investigating the learning dimension. In M.-L. Stenström & P. Tynjälä (Eds.), Towards integration of work and learning. Strategies for connectivity and transformation (pp. 137–151). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  13. Duchscher, J. E. B. (2009). Transition shock: The initial stage of role adaption for newly graduated registered nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(5), 1103–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eraut, M. (2004). Informal learning in the workplace. Studies in Continuing Education, 26(2), 247–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. European Union. (2012). Europe in figures - Eurostat yearbook. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home/
  16. Feltovich, P. J., Prietula, M. J., & Ericsson, K. A. (2006). Studies of expertise from psychological perspectives. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich, & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 41–67). Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fenwick, T. (2013). Understanding transitions in professional practice and learning. Journal of Workplace Learning, 25(6), 352–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Filstad, C., & McManus, J. (2011). Transforming knowledge to knowing at work: The experiences of newcomers. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 30(6), 763–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fives, H., Hamman, D., & Olivarez, A. (2007). Does burnout begin with student teaching? Analyzing efficacy, burnout and support during the student-teaching semester. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 916–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fuller, A., & Unwin, L. (2004). Expansive learning environments. Integrating organizational and personal development. In H. Rainbird, A. Fuller, & A. Munro (Eds.), Workplace learning in context (pp. 126–144). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Grebner, S., Elrefing, A., Semmer, N. K., Kaiser-Probst, C., & Schlapbach, M.-L. (2004). Stressful situations at work in private life among young workers: An event sampling approach. Social Indicators Research, 67(1/2), 11–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guile, D. (2009). Conceptualising the transition from education to work as vocational practice: Lessons from the UK’s creative and cultural sector. British Educational Research Journal, 35(5), 761–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Guile, D., & Griffiths, T. (2001). Learning through work experience. Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 113–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hakkarainen, K., Palonen, T., Paavola, S., & Lehtinen, E. (2004). Communities of networked expertise: Professional and educational perspectives. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  25. Harris, D. N., & Adams, S. (2007). Understanding the level and causes of teacher turnover: A comparison with other professions. Economics of Education Review, 26, 325–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heikkinen, H., Jokinen, H., & Tynjälä, P. (Eds.). (2012). Peer-group mentoring for teacher development. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Hong, J. Y. (2010). Pre-service and beginning teachers’ professional identity and its relation to dropping out of the profession. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1530–1543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jäppinen, A.-K. (2012). Transitions in individual vocational education pathways: Challenges and collaborative solutions. In P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström, & M. Saarnivaara (Eds.), Transitions and transformations in learning and education (pp. 103–116). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koen, J., Klehe, U.-C., & van Vianen, A. E. M. (2012). Training career adaptability to facilitate successful school-to-work transition. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81(3), 395–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Korte, R., & Lin, S. (2013). Getting on board: Organizational socialization and the contribution of social capital. Human Relations, 66(3), 407–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Livanos, I. (2010). The relationship between higher education and labour market in Greece: The weakest link? Higher Education, 60, 473–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Maynard, T. (2001). The student teacher and the school community of practice: A consideration of ‘learning as participation’. Cambridge Journal of Education, 31(1), 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moreau, M., & Leathwood, C. (2006). Graduates employment and the discourse of employability: A critical analysis. Journal of Education and Work, 19(4), 305–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Murtonen, M., Olkinuora, E., Tynjälä, P., & Lehtinen, E. (2008). “Do I need research skills in working life?”: University students’ motivation and difficulties in quantitative methods courses. Higher Education, 56(5), 599–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Newton, J. M. (2011). Reflective learning groups for student nurses. In S. Billett & A. Henderson (Eds.), Promoting professional learning: Integrating experiences in university and practice settings. Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 978-90-481-3936-1.Google Scholar
  36. Newton, J. M., & McKenna, L. (2007). The transitional journey through the graduate year: A focus group study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44(7), 1231–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Newton, J. M., Billett, S., & Ockerby, C. (2009). Journeying through clinical placements: An examination of six student cases. Nurse Education Today, 29, 630–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Newton, J. M., White, K., Cross, W. M., Ockerby, C., & Billett, S. (2011). Outcomes of a clinical partnership model for undergraduate nursing students. Contemporary Nurse, 39(1), 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nykänen, S., Saukkonen, S., & Vuorinen, R. (2012). Transformations in lifelong guidance provision. In P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström, & M. Saarnivaara (Eds.), Transitions and transformations in learning and education (pp. 187–202). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ockerby, C., Newton, J. M., Cross, W. M., & Jolly, B. (2009). A learning partnership: Exploring preceptorship through interviews with registered and novice nurses. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 17(4), 353–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. OECD. (2000). From initial education to working life. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  42. OECD. (2004). Career guidance: A handbook for policy makers. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  43. OECD. (2005). Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  44. OECD. (2012). OECD Harmonised Unemployment Rates News Release, August 2012 http://www.oecd.org/std/labour-stats/HUR_NR10e12.pdf
  45. Postareff, L., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., & Nevgi, A. (2007). The effect of pedagogical training on teaching in higher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 557–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Postareff, L., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., & Nevgi, A. (2008). A follow-up study of the effect of pedagogical training on teaching in higher education. Higher Education, 56, 29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rubin, H. (2009). Collaborative leadership: Developing effective partnerships for communities and schools. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  48. Saka, Y., Southerland, S. A., & Brooks, J. (2009). Becoming a member of a school community while working toward science education reform: Teacher induction from a cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) perspective. Science Education, 93, 996–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Saks, A. M., & Gruman, J. A. (2011). Getting newcomers engaged: The role of socialization tactics. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26(5), 383–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Salmela-Aro, K. (2012). Motivation, burnout, and engagement during critical transitions from school to work. In P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström, & M. Saarnivaara (Eds.), Transitions and transformations in learning and education (pp. 153–168). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schmid, E., & Stalder, B. E. (2012). Dropping out from apprenticeship training as an opportunity for change. In P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström, & M. Saarnivaara (Eds.), Transitions and transformations in learning and education (pp. 117–130). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shoval, E., Erlich, I., & Feijgin, N. (2010). Mapping and interpreting novice physical education teachers’ self-perceptions of strengths and difficulties. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 15(1), 85–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Simosi, M. (2012). Disentangling organizational support construct: The role of different sources of support to newcomers’ training transfer and organizational commitment. Personnel Review, 41(3), 301–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stenström, M.-L. (2006). Polytechnic graduates working life skills and expertise. In P. Tynjälä, J. Välimaa, & G. Boulton-Lewis (Eds.), Higher education and working life: Collaborations, confrontations and challenges (pp. 89–102). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  55. Sultana, R. (2004). Guidance policies in the knowledge society. Trends, challenges and responses across Europe (CEDEFOP Synthesis Report). Thessaloniki: Cedefop.Google Scholar
  56. Teichler, U. (2007). Does higher education matter? Lessons from a comparative graduate survey. European Journal of Education, 42(1), 11–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Thomas, C., & Lankau, M. (2009). Preventing burnout: The effects of LMX and mentoring on socialization, role stress, and burnout. Human Resource Management, 48(3), 417–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tynjälä, P. (2008). Perspectives into learning at the workplace. Educational Research Review, 3, 130–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tynjälä, P. (2013). Toward a 3-P model of workplace learning: A literature review. Vocations and Learning, 6(1), 11–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tynjälä, P., & Gijbels, D. (2012). Changing world – Changing pedagogy. In P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström, & M. Saarnivaara (Eds.), Transitions and transformations in learning and education (pp. 205–222). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tynjälä, P., & Heikkinen, H. (2011). Beginning teachers’ transition to working life: Theoretical perspectives and best practices. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenshaft, 14(1), 11–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tynjälä, P., Räisänen, A., Määttä, V., Pesonen, K., Kaupppi, A., Lempinen, P., Ede, R., Altonen, M., & Hietala, R. (2006a). Työpaikalla tapahtuva oppiminen ammatillisessa peruskoulutuksessa. Arviointiraportti. Koulutuksen arviointineuvoston julkaisuja 20 [Workplace learning in vocational education and training. An evaluation report. Publications from the Finnish Education Evaluation Council 20]. (in Finnish)Google Scholar
  63. Tynjälä, P., Slotte, V., Nieminen, J., Lonka, K., & Olkinuora, E. (2006b). From university to working life: Graduates’ workplace skills in practice. In P. Tynjälä, J. Välimaa, & G. Boulton-Lewis (Eds.), Higher education and working life: Collaborations, confrontations and challenges (pp. 73–88). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  64. Vaatstra, R., & Vries, R. (2007). The effect of the learning environment on competences and training for the workplace according to graduates. Higher Education, 53, 335–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Virtanen, A., Tynjälä, P., & Eteläpelto, A. (2014). Factors promoting vocational students’ learning at work: A study on student experiences. Journal of Education and Work, 27(1), 43–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Volanen, M. V. (2012). Transition and constitution in school/work relations. In P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström, & M. Saarnivaara (Eds.), Transitions and transformations in learning and education (pp. 67–84). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vuorinen-Lampila, P., & Stenström, M.-L. (2012). Higher education graduates’ employment and the uncertainty of working life. In P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström, & M. Saarnivaara (Eds.), Transitions and transformations in learning and education (pp. 131–151). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wang, J., & Odell, S. (2007). An alternative conception of mentor-novice relationships: Leaving to teach in reform-minded ways as a context. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 473–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. White, L. (2013, October 10–12). Something’s not working. Nursing Review, Issue 9.Google Scholar
  70. Woolbers, M. H. (2000). The effects of level of education and mobility bet on employment and unemployment in the Netherlands. European Sociological Review, 16(2), 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Woolfolk Hoy, A., & Burke Spero, R. (2005). Changes in teacher efficacy during the early years of teaching: A comparison of four measures. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 343–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zilembo, M., & Monterosso, L. (2008). Nursing students’ perceptions of desirable leadership qualities in nurse preceptors: a descriptive survey. Contemporary Nurse, 27(2), 194–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zukas, M., & Kilminster, S. (2012). Learning to practise, practising to learn: Doctors’ transitions to new levels of responsibility (Ch13). In P. Hager et al. (Eds.), Practice, learning and change: Practice-theory perspectives on professional learning (Professional and Practice-based Learning, Vol. 8). Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Finnish Institute for Educational ResearchUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health SciencesMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations