Gall-Inducing Insects and Their Associated Parasitoid Assemblages in the Forests of Panama

  • Enrique Medianero
  • Héctor Barrios
  • José Luis Nieves-Aldrey


During the past 20 years several studies have documented gall-inducing insect species richness in Panama. Additionally, host plant and parasitoid assemblages associated to galls have been studied. The effects of habitat, altitude, vegetation, and climate on the richness of insect gall assemblages have been addressed in these studies. Similarly, the effects of temporal, spatial, and vertical variation on the local richness of gall-inducing species have also been discussed. The use of a crane in the rainforests of Panama has enabled us to study gall communities in the forest canopy. The taxonomic knowledge on oak gall wasps and their patterns in species richness and distribution in Panama have been the focus of attention in recent years. Here, we review the literature documenting the taxonomic diversity of the Cynipidae and oak gall wasps (tribe Cynipini) in the Neotropics, supplementing it with recent field surveys assessing oak gall wasp diversity in montane forests of Panama. In particular, we studied gall wasp diversity associated with Quercus spp. (Fagaceae), the dominant tree genus in montane forests of Panama, and identified a rich gall wasp insect fauna (~65 spp).


Gall maker Oak gall wasps Cynipidae Panama Neotropical region Central America 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enrique Medianero
    • 1
  • Héctor Barrios
    • 1
  • José Luis Nieves-Aldrey
    • 2
  1. 1.Programa Centroamericano de Maestría en Entomología, Vicerrectoría de Investigación y PostgradoUniversidad de PanamáCiudad de PanamáPanama
  2. 2.Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología EvolutivaMuseo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC)MadridSpain

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