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Fruit and Vegetables and Health: An Overview

Chapter

Abstract

A growing body of evidences suggests that the regular consumption of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables (FAV) reduces the risk of chronic human illnesses and increase lifespan and quality of life. FAV are considered energy poor, are rich sources of minerals, fibers, vitamins and most of all of many phytochemicals belonging to four main classes: polyphenols, terpenoids, sulphur compounds and alkaloids. Polyphenols, and to a certain extent carotenoids and sulphur containing compounds have been shown through epidemiological cohort studies or through mechanistic in vitro or animal studies, to prevent coronary heart diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, macular degeneration, and many others. Owing to their particular chemical structure, theses phytochemicals display strong antioxidant capacity in vitro. Yet due to their poor bioavailability and their short residence time in the organism, it is more and more admitted that these molecules trigger detoxification mechanisms in the body and induce genes associated with energy metabolism, anti-inflammation and endogenous-antioxidant network at the cellular level.

This chapter describes the different phytochemicals found in FAV with emphasis on polyphenols, the most important class of compounds in relation to health benefits and amounts ingested on a daily basis in our diet. The contribution of these chemicals to the prevention of chronic diseases is covered and new insights on their possible mode of action are discussed. The scope of this chapter is broad and intends to brush an overview of this very complex and dynamic field of research, at the interface between plant and human physiology. The reader is guided and often referred to bibliographic reviews on topics as diverse and eclectic as phytochemicals biosynthesis, bioavailability, inflammatory responses, cancer etiology, appetite control, insulin resistance, and cognition.

Keywords

Fruits Vegetables Health Polyphenols Carotenoids Sulphur compounds Cancer Coronary heart disease Obesity Diabetes Neurodegenerative disease Bioavailability 

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods/Horticulture Research CenterLaval UniversityQuébec CityCanada

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