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The Spectacular Belum and Borra Caves of Eastern India

Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)


The Belum and Bora Caves of Andhra Pradesh form exemplary karst features of great research importance to earth and archeological sciences, besides being attractive tourist destinations. These caves were formed by the dissolution of carbonate rocks (such as limestones and dolomites) through the action of groundwater. This process has contributed to the creation of a variety of surface and sub-surface features. The karstic features in and around these caves include karren, sinkholes, dolines, disappearing streams and karst springs. Sub-surface features include large caves with impressive speleothems (stalagmites and stalactites). These karstic features probably developed during more moist periods in the past. Subsequent change in climate to semi-aridity likely reduced the rate of dissolution of the carbonate to the currently observed rates.


  • Karst topography
  • Belum Caves
  • Borra Caves
  • Speleothems
  • Stalagmites
  • Stalactites

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-8029-2_19
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Correspondence to A. C. Narayana .

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Narayana, A.C., Yadava, M.G., Dar, F.A., Ramesh, R. (2014). The Spectacular Belum and Borra Caves of Eastern India. In: Kale, V. (eds) Landscapes and Landforms of India. World Geomorphological Landscapes. Springer, Dordrecht.

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