Anthology and Genesis of Nanodimensional Objects and GM Food as the Threats for Human Security

  • O. KharlamovEmail author
  • M. Bondarenko
  • O. Khyzhun
  • G. Kharlamova
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology book series (NAPSA)


At the end of the last century two important scientific discovery in biochemistry and nanochemistry were made which essentially have changed the quality and quality of modern food. In 1981–1982 years were created the first genetically modified organism (GMO) and hardly later was discovered a new state of matter as nanodimensional objects (NDO) and nanomaterials. With 1996–2009 year the area of crops of GM cultures have increased with 2.8 up to 134.0 million ha. It corresponds almost to all 2/3 of cultivated fertile grounds. NDO are widely used as various external decoration and the additives in food and packings. Hence, a new epoch of preparation of artificial modified by GMO and NDO food have began, as from lack of organic food can and already millions inhabitants of a planet perish. However, at hit into an organism of people through skin, nose and mouth NDO also easy overcome practically all biological of barriers and can interact and destroy different human organs. The first results of study of an influence of NDO and GMO on the organism of people and plants are threatening. The objectives of this report is to demonstrate the experimental results of nanoecological nanothreats related with a scale usage of GMO and NDO as the additives in nano-food and in it packings.


Graphene Oxide Carbon Nitride Genetically Modify Object Human Security Harmful Influence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Keith R, Hiatt B, Martineau B, Kramer M (1992) Safety assessment of genetically engineered fruits and vegetables: a Case study of the Flavr Savr tomato. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weasel LH (2009) Food fray. Amacom Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kharlamov A, Skripnichenko A, Gubareny N et al (2011) Toxicology of nano-objects: nanoparticles, nanostructures and nanophases. In: Mikhalovsky S, Khajibaev A (eds) Biodefence. NATO science for peace and security series A: chemistry and biology, Part 1. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kharlamov O, Bondarenko M, Kharlamova G et al (2015) Nanoecological security of foodstuffs and human. In: Bonča J, Kruchinin S (eds) Nanotechnology in the security systems. NATO science for peace and security series c: environmental security. Springer, Dordrecht, Chapter 19, pp 215–229Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kharlamov A, Bondarenko M, Skripnichenko A, Kharlamova G (2013) Nanothreats and nanotoxicological peculiarities of nanoobjects as one of the future trends of terrorist threat. In: Voica DR, Duyan A (eds) Trends and developments in contemporary terrorism. IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp 33–47Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kharlamov AI, Bondarenko ME, Kirillova NV (2012) New method for synthesis of fullerenes and fullerene hydrides from benzene. Russ J Appl Chem 85(2):233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kharlamov AI, Kharlamova GA, Bondarenko ME (2013) New low-temperature method for joint synthesis of C60 fullerene and new carbon molecules in the form of C3–C15 and quasi-fullerenes C48, C42, C40. Russ J Appl Chem 86(8):1174–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kharlamov O, Kharlamova G, Bondarenko M, Fomenko V (2013) Small carbon molecules and quasi-fullerenes as products of new method of hydrocarbons pyrolysis. In: Vaseashta A, Khudaverdyan S (eds) Advanced sensors for safety and security. NATO science for peace and security series B: physics and biophysics. Springer, Dordrecht, Chapter 30, pp 329–338.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kharlamov AI, Kharlamova GA, Bondarenko ME (2013) New products of a new method for pyrolysis of pyridine. Russ J Appl Chem 86(2):167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kharlamova G, Kharlamov O, Bondarenko M (2013) Hetero-carbon: heteroatomic molecules and nano-structures of carbon. In: Vaseashta A, Khudaverdyan S (eds) Advanced sensors for safety and security. NATO science for peace and security series B: physics and biophysics. Springer, Dordrecht, Chapter 31, pp 339–357Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kharlamov AI, Kharlamov GA, Bondarenko ME (2013) Preparation of onion-like carbon with high nitrogen content ( ∼ 15 %) from Pyridine. Russ J Appl Chem 86(10):1493–1503Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kharlamov O, Bondarenko M, Kharlamova G, Fomenko V (2015) Quasi-fulleranes and fulleranes as main products of fullerenizasion of molecules of Benzene, Toluene and Pyridine. In: Camesano TA (ed) Nanotechnology to aid chemical and biological defense. NATO science for peace and security series A: chemistry and biology. Springer, Dordrecht, Chapter 13, pp 191–205Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kharlamov O, Bondarenko M, Kharlamova G (2015) O-doped carbon nitride (O-g-C3N) with high oxygen content (11.1 mass%) synthesized by pyrolysis of Pyridine. In: Camesano TA (ed) Nanotechnology to aid chemical and biological defense. NATO science for peace and security series A: chemistry and biology. Springer, Dordrecht, Chapter 9, pp 129–145Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ermakov V, Kruchinin S, Fujiwara A (2008) Electronic nanosensors based on nanotransistor with bistability behaviour. In: Bonca J, Kruchinin S (eds) Proceedings NATO ARW “Electron transport in nanosystems”. Springer, Berlin, pp 341–349Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jackson DA, Symons RH, Berg P (1972) Biochemical method for inserting new genetic information into DNA of Simian virus 40: circular SV40 DNA molecules containing lambda phage genes and the galactose operon of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci 69:2904–2909ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cohen SN, Chang ACY, Boyer HW, Helling RB (1973) Construction of biologically functional bacterial plasmids in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci 70(11):3240–3244ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Institute of Science in Society, University of Nottingham.
  18. 18.
    Buravchikova D, Korobitsyna O, Melnikov A (2013) Genetically mined. Murderous law. Why officials and business allowed GMOs in Russia, Argumenty i Fakty 51Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    On state registration of genetically modified organisms intended for release into the environment, as well as products derived from the use of such organisms or containing such organisms, “Government of the Russian Federation, the decision”, No. 839, September 23 (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Berg P, Baltimore D, Boyer HW, Cohen SN (1974) Potential biohazards of recombinant DNA molecules. Science 185(4148):303ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Modern food biotechnology, human health and development: a study based on the facts. WHO report (Russian) (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    European Commission Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, Directorate E – Biotechnologies, Agriculture, Food; Unit E2 – Biotechnologies (2010)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ewen SW, Pusztai A (1999) Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine. Lancet 354(9187):1353–1354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Séralini GE, Clair E, Mesnage R (2012) Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize. Food Chem Toxicol 50:4221–4231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Séralini GE, Clair E, Mesnage R et al (2013) Answers to critics: why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide. Food Chem Toxicol 53:476–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ermakova IV (2007) GM soybeans revisiting a controversial format. Nat Biotechnol 25(12):1351–1354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Engdahl W (2007) Seeds of destruction: the hidden agenda of GMO. Global Research, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Aris A, Leblanc S (2011) Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern townships of Quebec, Canada. Rep Toxicol 31(4):528–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nordlee JA, Taylor SL, Townsend JA et al (1996) Identification of a Brazil-nut allergen in transgenic soybeans. N Engl J Med 334(11):688–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Prescott VE, Campbell PM, Moore A (2005) Expression of Bean-Amylase inhibitor in peas results in altered structure and immunogenicity. J Agric Food Chem 53(23):9023–9030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lin M (2013) Toxic nanoparticles might be entering human food supply. University of Missouri-Columbia. Science Daily, 22 Aug 2013.
  32. 32.
    Korinth G, Weiss T, Penkert S et al (2007) Percutaneous absorption of aromatic amines in rubber industry workers: impact of impaired skin and skin barrier creams. Occup Environ Med 64:366–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yah CS, Simate GS, Iyuke SE (2012) Nanoparticles toxicity and their routes of exposures. Pak J Pharm Sci 25(2):477–491Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Casals E, Vazquez-Campos S, Bastus NG, Punte V (2008) Distribution and potential toxicity of engineered inorganic nanoparticles and carbon nanostructures in biological systems. Trends Anal Chem 8(27):672–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Li JJ, Gurung RL, Hartono D et al (2011) Genomic instability of gold nanoparticle treated human lung fibroblast cells. Biomaterials 23(32):5515–5523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pisanic TR, Blackwell JD, Shubayev VI et al (2007) Nanotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticle internalization in growing neuron. Biomaterials 28:2572–2581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lak A, Dieckhoff J, Ludwig F et al (2013) Highly stable monodisperse PEGylated iron oxide nanoparticle aqueous suspensions: a nontoxic tracer for homogeneous magnetic bioassays. Nanoscale 5(23):11447–11455ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Luengo Y, Nardecchia S, Puerto M et al (2013) Different cell responses induced by exposure to maghemite nanoparticles. Nanoscale 5(23):11428–11437ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Korinth G and Drexler H (2013) Penetration of Nanoparticles through Intact and Compromised Skin. In: Nanomaterials. edited by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co, KGaA, Weinheim, Chapter 1.4, pp 37–42Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bonner JC, Silva RM, Taylor AJ et al (2013) Interlaboratory evaluation of rodent pulmonary responses to engineered nanomaterials: the NIEHS nano GO consortium. Environ Health Perspect 121(6):676–682Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Porter DW, Wu N, Hubbs AF et al (2013) Differential mouse pulmonary dose and time course responses to titanium dioxide nanospheres and nanobelts. Toxicol Sci 13:1179–193Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zeng K, Li J, Zhang Z et al (2015) Lipid-coated ZnO nanoparticles as lymphatic-targeted drug carriers: study on cell-specific toxicity in vitro and lymphatic targeting in vivo. J Mater Chem B 26(3):5249–5260MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pratsinis A, Hervella P, Leroux JC et al (2013) Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in macrophages. Small 9(15):2576–2584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reidy B, Haase A, Luch A et al (2013) Mechanisms of silver nanoparticle release, transformation and toxicity: a critical review of current knowledge and recommendations for future studies and applications. Materials 6(6):2295–2350ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Xue Y, Zhang T, Zhang B et al (2015) Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by silver nanoparticles in human liver HepG2 cells in different dispersion media. J Appl Toxicol 36(3):352–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mironava T, Hadjiargyrou M, Simon M, Rafailovich MH (2014) Gold nanoparticles cellular toxicity and recovery: adipose derived stromal cells. Nanotoxicology 8(2):189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhang XD, Wu D, Shen X et al (2011) Size-dependent in vivo toxicity of PEG-coated gold nanoparticles. Int J Nanomed 2011(6):2071–2081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Favi PM, Gao M, Arango LJS et al (2015) Shape and surface effects on the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles: gold nanospheres versus gold nanostars. J Biomed Mater Res A 103(11):3449–3462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Martínez-Carmona M, Baeza A, Rodriguez-Milla MA et al (2015) Mesoporous silica nanoparticles grafted with a light-responsive protein shell for highly cytotoxic antitumoral therapy. J Mater Chem B 28(3):5746–5752Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kartel MT, Ivanov LV, Kovalenko SN, Tereschenko VP (2011) Carbon nanotubes: biorisks and biodefence. In: Mikhalovsky S, Khajibaev A (eds) Biodefence. NATO science for peace and security series A: chemistry and biology. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 11–22Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zhao Y, Wu Q, Li Y et al (2014) In vivo translocation and toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes are regulated by microRNAs. Nanoscale 6:4275–4284ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jia G, Wang HF, Yan L et al (2005) Cytotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials: single-wall nanotube, multi-wall nanotube and fullerene. Env Sci Technol 39:1378–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Turabekova M, Rasulev B, Theodore M et al (2014) Immunotoxicity of nanoparticles: a computational study suggests that CNTs and C60 fullerenes might be recognized as pathogens by Toll-like receptors. Nanoscale 6:3488–3495ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mendes RG, Koch B, Bachmatiuk A et al (2015) A size dependent evaluation of the cytotoxicity and uptake of nanographene oxide. J Mater Chem B 12(3):2522–2529CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Kharlamov
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Bondarenko
    • 1
  • O. Khyzhun
    • 1
  • G. Kharlamova
    • 2
  1. 1.Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASUKievUkraine
  2. 2.Taras Shevchenko National University of KyivKyivUkraine

Personalised recommendations