Hetero-Carbon Nanostructures as the Effective Sensors in Security Systems

  • G. KharlamovaEmail author
  • O. Kharlamov
  • M. Bondarenko
  • O. Khyzhun
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology book series (NAPSA)


Hetero-carbon (heteroatomic derivatives of carbon, in which one or several atoms of carbon are replaced on atoms of another non-metals) will a basic component a new generation of nanomaterials. Carbon nitride g-C3N4 it is possible to consider as the limiting saturated by nitrogen a hetero-carbon, that the monolayer ((C6N7)-N) n should be named (on an analogy with azafullerene) azagraphene. Carbon nitride as well as azafullerenes, azananotubes (N-dope nanotubes) and N-doped graphene are used as very sensitive nanosensors. Modifying, in particular, oxidized derivatives of carbon nitride are not studied practically. Here the products of a new route of a pyrolysis of melamine which as against known methods is carried out at the presence of oxygen are described. New compound as carbon nitride oxide (g-C3N4)O was obtained. Its structure is analogue of graphite oxide. Nanosized powder of (g-C3N4)O is easily exfoliated and is dissolved in water with formation of a flake-like suspension. This suspension can contain nanosheets from several heptazine ((C6N7)-N) n monolayers or azagraphenes. Alongside with carbon nitride oxide at pyrolysis of melamine at the presence of oxygen in a one step the O-doped ( ∼ 8.1 %) carbon nitride (O-g-C3N4) is also formed.


Graphite Oxide Interplanar Distance Carbon Nitride Graphitic Carbon Nitride Intensive Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Krainara N, Illas F, Limtraku J (2012) Interaction of adenine Cu(II) complexes with BN-doped fullerene differentiates electronically equivalent tautomers. Chem Phys Lett 537:88–931ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lv R, Li Q, Botello-Méndez AR et al (2012) Nitrogen-doped graphene: beyond single substitution and enhanced molecular sensing. Sci Rep 2(586):1–8Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thomas A, Fischer A, Goettmann F et al (2008) Graphitic carbon nitride materials: variation of structure and morphology and their use as metal-free catalysts. J Mater Chem 18:4893–4908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kharlamov AI, Bondarenko ME, Kharlamova GA (2014) New method for synthesis of oxygen-doped graphite-like carbon nitride from pyridine. Russ J Appl Chem 87(9):1284–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kharlamova G, Kharlamov O, Bondarenko M (2015) O-Doped Carbon Nitride (O-g-C3N) with high Oxygen content (11.1 mass %) synthesized by pyrolysis of pyridine. In: Camesano TA (ed) Nanotechnology to aid chemical and biological defense. NATO science for peace and security series A: chemistry and biology, chapter 9 Springer, Dordrecht, pp 129–145Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang H, Huang Y, Hu S et al (2015) Fluorescent probes for “off–on” sensitive and selective detection of mercury ions and L-cysteine based on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets. J Mater Chem C 3:2093–2100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ma TY, Tang Y, Dai S, Qiao SZ (2014) Proton-functionalized two-dimensional graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet: an excellent metal-label-free biosensing platform. Small 10:2382–2389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee SP, Lee JG, Chowdhury S (2008) CMOS humidity sensor system using Carbon Nitride film as sensing materials. Sensors 8(4):2662–2672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang Z, Huang J, Yuan Q, Dong B (2014) Intercalated graphitic carbon nitride: a fascinating two-dimensional nanomaterial four an ultra-sensitive humidity nanosensor. Nanoscale 6:9250–9256ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kruchinin S, Pruschke T (2014) Thermopower for a molecule with vibrational degrees of freedom. Phys Lett A 378:157–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ermakov V, Kruchinin S, Pruschke T, Freericks J (2015) Thermoelectricity in tunneling nanostructures. Phys Rev B 92:115531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ermakov V, Kruchinin S, Fujiwara A (2008) Electronic nanosensors based on nanotransistor with bistability behaviour. In: Bonca J, Kruchinin S (eds) Proceedings NATO ARW “Electron transport in nanosystems”. Springer, Berlin, pp 341–349Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Medeiros RA, Matos R, Benchikh A et al (2013) Amorphous carbon nitride as an alternative electrode material in electroanalysis: simultaneous determination of dopamine and ascorbic acid. Anal Chim Acta 797:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dai H, Gao X, Liu E et al (2013) Synthesis and characterization of graphitic carbon nitride sub-microspheres using microwave method under mild condition. Diam Relat Mater 38:109–117ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li J, Shen B, Hong Z, Lin B et al (2012) A facile approach to synthesize novel oxygen-doped g-C3N4 with superior visible-light photoreactivity. Chem Commun 48:12017–12019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang X, Xie X, Wang H et al (2013) Enhanced photoresponsive ultrathin graphitic-phase C3N4 nanosheets for bioimaging. J Am Chem Soc 135:18–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kharlamov AI, Kharlamova GA, Bondarenko ME (2013) New products of a new method for pyrolysis of pyridine. Russ J Appl Chem 86(2):167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kharlamov AI, Kharlamov GA, Bondarenko ME (2013) Preparation of onion-like carbon with high nitrogen content ( ∼ 15 %) from pyridine. Russ J Appl Chem 86(10):1493–1503Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kharlamova G, Kharlamov O, Bondarenko M et al (2013) Hetero-carbon: heteroatomic molecules and nano-structures of carbon. In: Vaseashta A, Khudaverdyan S (eds) Advanced sensors for safety and security, NATO science for peace and security series B: physics and biophysics, Part VII. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 339–357Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xin G, Meng Y (2013) Pyrolysis synthesized g-C3N4 for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. J Chem 2013:1–5Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kentaro K, Naoya M, Chen Y et al (2013) Development of highly efficient sulfur-doped TiO2 photocatalysts hybridized with graphitic carbon nitride. Appl Environ Microbiol 142–143:362–367Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Montigaud H, Tanguy B, Demazeau G et al (2000) C3N4: dream or reality? Solvothermal synthesis as macroscopic samples of the C3N4 graphitic form. J Mater Sci 35(10):2547–2552ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kulik TV, Barvinchenko VN, Palyanitsa BB et al (2007) A desorption mass spectrometry study of the interaction of cinnamic acid with a silica surface. Russ J Phys Chem A 81:83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kim M, Hwang S, Yu JS (2007) Novel ordered nanoporous graphitic carbon nitride with C3N4 stoichiometry as a support for Pt–Ru anode catalyst in DMFC. J Mater Chem 17:1656–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang Y, Liu J, Wu G, Chen W (2012) Porous graphitic carbon nitride synthesized via directly polymerization of urea for efficient sunlight-driven photocatalytic hydrogen production. Nanoscale 4:5300–5303ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dong F, Wu L, Sun Y et al (2011) Efficient synthesis of polymeric g-C3N4 layered materials as novel efficient visible light driven photocatalyst. J Mater Chem 21:15171–15174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pozdnyakov OF, Pancakes LN, Arif M et al (2005) Mass spectrometry of carbon nitride C3N4. Tech Phys Lett 31:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fischer A (2008) “Reactive Hard Templating” from carbon nitrides to metal nitrides. Ph.D. thesis, Potsdam.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kharlamov AI, Kirillova NV, Kaverina SN (2002) Hollow silicon carbide nanostructures. Theor Exp Chem 38(4):237–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kharlamov AI, Kirillova NV (2009) Fullerenes and fullerenes hydrides as products of transformation (polycondensation) of aromatic hydrocarbons. Rep Acad Sci Ukr 5:112–120 (Russian)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Kharlamova
    • 1
    Email author
  • O. Kharlamov
    • 2
  • M. Bondarenko
    • 2
  • O. Khyzhun
    • 2
  1. 1.Taras Shevchenko National University of KyivKyivUkraine
  2. 2.Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASUKyivUkraine

Personalised recommendations