Advertisement

Prevention of Fatal Child Maltreatment: What Are We Doing That Is Working?

  • Emily M. Douglas
Chapter
  • 173 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter addresses the prevention of fatal child maltreatment. Most efforts in this arena have concerned the prevention of child abuse and neglect in general, because if one prevents this, then abuse or neglect-related deaths are also prevented. That said, there have been some efforts to educate parents or the general public about certain types of caregiving behaviors that might especially place a child at-risk for fatality, such as shaking a baby or leaving a child unattended in a vehicle. This chapter reviews the efficacy of these approaches and then discusses common child maltreatment-prevention programs—visiting home services and parenting education—and their application to fatal maltreatment.

Keywords

Fatal child maltreatment Prevention of child maltreatment Child maltreatment public education campaigns Shaken baby syndrome Home visiting programs Parenting education 

References

  1. Agran, P. D. D. (1991). Unsupervised children in vehicles: A risk for pediatric trauma. Pediatrics, 87(1), 70.Google Scholar
  2. Altman, R. L., Canter, J., Patrick, P. A., Daley, N., Butt, N. K., & Brand, D. A. (2011). Parent education by maternity nurses and prevention of abusive head trauma. Pediatrics, 128(5), e1164–e1172. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-3260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2009). Abusive head trauma: A new name for shaken baby syndrome. Retrieved November 16, 2014, from http://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/Pages/Abusive-Head-Trauma-A-New-Name-for-Shaken-Baby-Syndrome.aspx
  4. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2011). Policy statement – SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Retrieved January 24, 2015, from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/10/12/peds.2011-2284.full.pdf
  5. Armagost, S. (2001). An innocent mistake or criminal conduct: Children dying of hyperthermia in hot vehicles. Hamline Journal of Public Law & Policy, 23(1), 109–144.Google Scholar
  6. Barkin, S., & Gelberg, L. (1999). Sink or swim—Clinicians don’t often counsel on drowning prevention. Pediatrics, 104(Supplement 6), 1217–1219.Google Scholar
  7. Barnett, E. R., Rosenberg, H. J., Rosenberg, S. D., Osofsky, J. D., & Wolford, G. L. (2014). Innovations in practice: Dissemination and implementation of child–parent psychotherapy in rural public health agencies. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 19(3), 215–218.Google Scholar
  8. Barr, R. G. (2012). Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(Suppl 2), 17294–17301. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1121267109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barr, R. G., Barr, M., Fujiwara, T., Conway, J., Catherine, N., & Brant, R. (2009). Do educational materials change knowledge and behaviour about crying and shaken baby syndrome? A randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 180(7), 727–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barr, R. G., Rivara, F. P., Barr, M., Cummings, P., Taylor, J., Lengua, L. J., et al. (2009). Effectiveness of educational materials designed to change knowledge and behaviors regarding crying and Shaken-Baby Syndrome in mothers of newborns: A randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 123(3), 972–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barth, R. P. (2009). Preventing child abuse and neglect with parent training: Evidence and opportunities. The Future of Children, 19(2), 95–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bidgood, B. A., & van de Sande, A. (1990). Home-based programming for a child welfare clientele. In M. Rothery & G. Cameron (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Expanding our concept of helping (pp. 107–125). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  13. Bodenmann, G., Cina, A., Ledermann, T., & Sanders, M. R. (2008). The efficacy of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in improving parenting and child behavior: A comparison with two other treatment conditions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(4), 411–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Canellos, P. S. (2003, August 28). Vt. program delivers dose of Dr. Dean. Boston Globe. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2003/08/28/vt_program_delivers_dose_of_dr_dean/
  15. Carbaugh, S. F. (2004). Understanding shaken baby syndrome. Advances in Neonatal Care, 4(2), 105–117. doi: 10.1016/j.adnc.2004.1001.1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2012). Heads up: Prevent shaken baby syndrome. Injury prevention & control: Traumatic brain injury. Retrieved November 16, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/concussion/HeadsUp/sbs.html
  17. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2014a). Essentials for childhood: Steps to create safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments. Retrieved December 16, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/essentials_for_childhood_framework.pdf
  18. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2014b). Preventing child maltreatment: Program activities guide. Retrieved January 3, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/cm_prog_activities_guide-a.pdf
  19. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (2014c). Unintentional drowning: Get the facts. Retrieved December 15, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/water-safety/waterinjuries-factsheet.html
  20. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. (n.d.). Preventing shaken baby syndrome: A guide for health departments and community-based organizations Heads Up. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.Google Scholar
  21. Chaffin, M. (2004). Is it time to rethink healthy start/healthy families? Child Abuse & Neglect, 28(6), 589–595. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.04.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chaffin, M., Funderburk, B., Bard, D., Valle, L. A., & Gurwitch, R. (2011). A combined motivation and parent-child interaction therapy package reduces child welfare recidivism in a randomized dismantling field trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(1), 84–95. doi: 10.1037/a0021227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chaffin, M., Silovsky, J. F., Funderburk, B., Valle, L. A., Brestan, E. V., Balachova, T., … Bonner, B. L. (2004). Parent-child interaction therapy with physically abusive parents: Efficacy for reducing future abuse reports. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(3), 500–510. doi: 10.1037/0022-006x.72.3.500.
  24. Collins, J. M. (2006). Crime and parenthood: The uneasy case for prosecuting negligent parents. Northwestern University Law Review, 100(2), 807–856.Google Scholar
  25. Covington, T. (2013). The public health approach for understanding and preventing child maltreatment: A brief review of the literature and a call to action. Child Welfare, 92(2), 21–39.Google Scholar
  26. Damashek, A., Drass, S., & Bonner, B. L. (2014). Child maltreatment fatalities related to inadequate caregiver supervision. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(11), 1987–2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Graaf, I., Speetjens, P., Smit, F., de Wolff, M., & Tavecchio, L. (2008). Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on parenting: A meta-analysis. Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 57(5), 553–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dell’Antonia, K. (2011, December 6). A campaign against bed sharing. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://parenting.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/06/a-controversial-campaign-against-co-sleeping/?_r=0
  29. Dias, M. S., Smith, K., DeGuehery, K., Mazur, P., Li, V., & Shaffer, M. L. (2005). Preventing abusive head trauma among infants and young children: A Hospital-Based, Parent Education Program. Pediatrics, 115(4), e470–e477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Douglas, E. M. (2005). Child maltreatment fatalities: What do we know, what have we done and where do we go from here? In K. Kendall-Tackett & S. Gaicomoni (Eds.), Child victimization (pp. 4.1–4.18). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.Google Scholar
  31. Douglas, E. M. (2015). Using theory to examine fatal child maltreatment among a sample of children known to child protective services. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 9(3), 217–235.Google Scholar
  32. Douglas, E. M., & Cunningham, J. M. (2008). Recommendations from child fatality review teams: Results of a US nationwide exploratory study concerning maltreatment fatalities and social service delivery. Child Abuse Review, 17(5), 331–351. doi: 10.1002/car.1044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Drazen, S. M., & Haust, M. (1993). Raising reading readiness in low-income children by Parent Education. Draft.Google Scholar
  34. Duggan, A., Caldera, D., Rodriguez, K., Burrell, L., Rohde, C., & Crowne, S. S. (2007). Impact of a statewide home visiting program to prevent child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(8), 801–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Duggan, A., McFarlane, E., Fuddy, L., Burrell, L., Higman, S. M., Windham, A., et al. (2004). Randomized trial of a statewide home visiting program: impact in preventing child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28(6), 597–622. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2003.08.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dumont, K., Kirkland, K., Mitchell-Herzfeld, S., Ehrhard-Dietzel, S., Lee, E., Layne, C., et al. (2010). A randomized trial of Healthy Families New York (HFNY): Does home visiting prevent child maltreatment? Rensselaer, NY: New York State Office of Children & Family Services and Albany.Google Scholar
  37. Durfee, M., Durfee, D. T., & West, M. P. (2002). Child fatality review: An international movement. Child Abuse & Neglect, 26, 619–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eckenrode, J. (2000). What works in nurse home visiting programs. In M. P. Kluger, G. Alexander, & P. A. Curtis (Eds.), What works in child welfare (pp. 35–43). Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.Google Scholar
  39. Edwards, A., Lutzker, J. R., Self-Brown, S., & Whitaker, D. (2012). SafeCare: Addressing child maltreatment from a public health perspective. In J. R. Lutzker & J. Merrick (Eds.), Applied public health: Examining multifaceted social or ecological problems and child maltreatment (pp. 119–132). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Biomedical Books.Google Scholar
  40. Edwards-Gaura, A., Whitaker, D. J., Lutzker, J. R., Self-Brown, S., & Lewis, E. (2012). SafeCare: Application of an evidence-based program to prevent child maltreatment. In A. Rubin (Ed.), Programs and interventions for maltreated children and families at risk (pp. 259–272). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  41. Fein, L. G. (1979). Can child fatalities, end product child abuse, be prevented? Children and Youth Services Review, 1, 31–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, J., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Early Start evaluation report. Retrieved January 24, 2015, from http://www.otago.ac.nz/christchurch/otago014859.pdf
  43. Filene, J. H., Kaminski, J. W., Valle, L. A., & Cachat, P. (2013). Components associated with home visiting program outcomes: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 132(Supplement 2), S100–S109. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1021H.
  44. Fletcher, R., Freeman, E., & Matthey, S. (2011). The impact of behavioural parent training on fathers’ parenting: A meta-analysis of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Practice about Men as Fathers, 9(3), 291–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Funderburk, B. W., & Elherg, S. (2011). Parent-child interaction therapy. In J. C. Norcross, G. R. VandenBos, & D. K. Freedheim (Eds.), History of psychotherapy: Continuity and change (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  46. Gardner, R., Hodson, D., Churchill, G., & Cotmore, R. (2014). Transporting and implementing the SafeCare® home-based programme for parents, designed to reduce and mitigate the effects of child neglect: An initial progress report. Child Abuse Review, 23(4), 297–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gelles, R. J. (1996). The book of David: How preserving families can cost children’s lives. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  48. Gershater-Molko, R. M., Lutzker, J. R., & Wesch, D. (2002). Using recidivism to evaluate project safecare: Teaching bonding, safety, and health care skills to parents. Child Maltreatment, 7(3), 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Goyal, N. K., Teeters, A., & Ammerman, R. T. (2013). Home visiting and outcomes of preterm infants: A systematic review. Pediatrics, 132(3), 502–516. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Green, A. H., Power, E., Steinbook, B., & Gaines, R. (1981). Factors associated with successful and unsuccessful intervention with child abusive families. Child Abuse & Neglect, 5(1), 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Greenland, C. (1989). Preventing CAN deaths: An international study of deaths due to child abuse and neglect. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  52. Guard, A., & Gallagher, S. S. (2005). Heat related deaths to young children in parked cars: An analysis of 171 fatalities in the United States, 1995–2002. Injury Prevention, 11(1), 33–37. doi: 10.1136/ip.2003.004044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guterman, N. B. (1999). Enrollment strategies in early home visitation to prevent physical child abuse and neglect and the ‘Universal versus targeted’ debate: A meta-analysis of population-based and screening-based programs. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(9), 863–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Guterman, N. B. (2001). Stopping child maltreatment before it starts: Emerging horizons in early home visitation services. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Halpern, R. (1986). Home-based early intervention: Dimensions of current practice. Child Welfare: Journal of Policy, Practice, and Program, 65(4), 387–398.Google Scholar
  56. Heinrichs, N., Kliem, S., & Hahlweg, K. (2014). Four-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of Triple P group for parent and child outcomes. Prevention Science, 15(2), 233–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kitzman, H., Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., Jr., Cole, R., Tatelbaum, R., McConnochie, K. M., … Hanks, C. (1997). Effect of prenatal and infancy home visitation by nurses on pregnancy outcomes, childhood injuries, and repeated childbearing. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 278(8), 644–652.Google Scholar
  58. Lee, L. K., & Thompson, K. M. (2007). Parental survey of beliefs and practices about bathing and water safety and their children: Guidance for drowning prevention. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39(1), 58–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lowell, D. I., Carter, A. S., Godoy, L., Paulicin, B., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of child FIRST: A comprehensive home-based intervention translating research into early childhood practice. Child Development, 82(1), 193–208. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01550.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lutzker, J. R., & Edwards, A. (2009). SafeCare®: Towards wide-scale implementation of a child maltreatment prevention program. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development, 2(1), 7–15.Google Scholar
  61. MacLeod, J., & Nelson, G. (2000). Programs for the promotion of family wellness and the prevention of child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(9), 1127–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marcenko, M. O., & Spence, M. (1994). Home visitation services for at-risk pregnant and postpartum women: A randomized trial. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64(3), 468–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mazzucchelli, T. G., & Sanders, M. R. (2011). Preventing behavioural and emotional problems in children who have a developmental disability: A public health approach. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(6), 2148–2156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McFarlane, E., Burrell, L., Fuddy, L., Tandon, D., Derauf, D. C., Leaf, P., et al. (2010). Association of home visitors’ and mothers’ attachment style with family engagement. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(5), 541–556. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McLaren, C., Null, J., & Quinn, J. (2005). Heat stress from enclosed vehicles: Moderate ambient temperatures cause significant temperature rise in enclosed vehicles. Pediatrics, 116(1), e109–e112. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-2368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Morawska, A., Sanders, M., Goadby, E., Headley, C., Hodge, L., McAuliffe, C., … Anderson, E. (2011). Is the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program acceptable to parents from culturally diverse backgrounds? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20(5), 614–622.Google Scholar
  67. Morawska, A., Tometzki, H., & Sanders, M. R. (2014). An evaluation of the efficacy of a Triple P-Positive Parenting Program podcast series. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 35(2), 128–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Morrongiello, B. A., Corbett, M., McCourt, M., & Johnston, N. (2006). Understanding unintentional injury risk in young children II. The contribution of caregiver supervision, child attributes, and parent attributes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31(6), 540–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Morrongiello, B. A., Sandomierski, M., & Spence, J. R. (2014). Changes over swim lessons in parents’ perceptions of children’s supervision needs in drowning risk situations: “His swimming has improved so now he can keep himself safe”. Health Psychology, 33(7), 608–615. doi: 10.1037/a0033881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. National Conference of State Legislatures. (2014, January). Shaken baby syndrome prevention legislation. From http://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/shaken-baby-syndrome-prevention-legislation.aspx
  71. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (n.d.). Heatstroke: Prevent child heatstroke in cars. Parents central – From car seats to car keys: Keeping kids safe. Retrieved December 14, 2014, from http://icsw.nhtsa.gov/safercar/parents/heatstroke.htm
  72. New York City Administration for Children’s Services. (2002). Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg marks child abuse awareness month with public education campaign to reduce shaken baby syndrome. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://www.nyc.gov/html/acs/html/pr_archives/pr02_04_23.shtml
  73. New York State Office of Children and Family Services. (2014). OCFS promotes safe sleep campaign in areas across New York state. Retrieved December 27, 2014, from http://ocfs.ny.gov/main/view_article.asp?ID=974
  74. North Carolina Child Fatality Task Force. (2014a). 2012 Child deaths in North Carolina: Trend in rate of child deaths 1991–2012, ages birth through 17 years. Retrieved December 27, 2014, from http://www.ncleg.net/DocumentSites/Committees/NCCFTF/ReportsandData/2012ChildDeathChart.pdf
  75. North Carolina Child Fatality Task Force. (2014b). Child death rate down 45% since inception of the Child Fatality Task Force. Retrieved December 27, 2014, from http://www.ncleg.net/DocumentSites/Committees/NCCFTF/Homepage/
  76. Nurse-Family Partnership. (2014). Nurse-Family Partnership overview. Retrieved January 3, 2015, from http://www.nursefamilypartnership.org/assets/PDF/Fact-sheets/NFP_Overview.aspx
  77. Ohio Department of Health. (2014a). Safe sleep facts. Retrieved January 24, 2015, from http://www.odh.ohio.gov/features/odhfeatures/SafeSleep/SafeSleepFacts.aspx
  78. Ohio Department of Health. (2014b). Sleep-related infant deaths. Maternal and Child Health: Early Childhood. Retrieved January 24, 2015, from http://www.odh.ohio.gov/~/media/ODH/ASSETS/Files/datastatistics/maternal and child health/ec_Sleeprelatedinfant.ashx
  79. Olds, D. L. (2006). The nurse–family partnership: An evidence-based preventive intervention. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27(1), 5–25. doi: 10.1002/imhj.20077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Olds, D. L., Eckenrode, J., Henderson, C. R., Jr., et al. (1997). Long-term effects of home visitation on maternal life course and child abuse and neglect: Fifteen-year follow-up of a randomized trial. JAMA, 278(8), 637–643. doi: 10.1001/jama.1997.03550080047038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., Chamberlin, R., & Tatelbaum, R. (1986). Preventing child abuse and neglect: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics, 78(1), 65–78.Google Scholar
  82. Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., & Kitzman, H. (1994). Does prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation have enduring effects on qualities of parental caregiving and child health at 25 to 50 months of life? Pediatrics, 93(1), 89–98.Google Scholar
  83. Olds, D. L., & Kitzman, H. (1993). Review of research on home visiting for pregnant women and parents of young children. The Future of Children, 3(3), 53–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Knudtson, M. D., Anson, E., Smith, J. A., & Cole, R. (2014). Effect of home visiting by nurses on maternal and child mortality: Results of a 2-decade follow-up of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(9), 800–806. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Oliver, M. (2014, September 3). Scrutinizing child deaths in Alabama is paying off, state says. AL.com. Retrieved from http://www.al.com/news/index.ssf/2014/09/scrutinizing_child_deaths_in_a.html
  86. Peterson, L. (1994). Child injury and abuse-neglect: Common etiologies, challenges, and courses toward prevention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3(4), 116–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Poole, M. K., Seal, D. W., & Taylor, C. A. (2014). A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention. Health Education Research, 29(3), 388–432. doi: 10.1093/her/cyu012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., Shapiro, C. J., Whitaker, D. J., & Lutzker, J. R. (2009). Population-based prevention of child maltreatment: The U.S. triple P system population trial. Prevention Science, 10(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Reese, L. S., Heiden, E. O., Kim, K. Q., & Yang, J. (2014). Evaluation of period of PURPLE crying, an abusive head trauma prevention program. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN/NAACOG, 43(6), 752–761.Google Scholar
  90. Runyan, D. K., Hennink-Kaminski, H. J., Zolotor, A. J., Barr, R. G., Murphy, R. A., Barr, M., … Nocera, M. (2009). Designing and testing a shaken baby syndrome prevention program—The Period of PURPLE Crying: Keeping babies safe in North Carolina. Social Marketing Quarterly, 15(4), 2–24.Google Scholar
  91. Russell, B. S., Trudeau, J., & Britner, P. A. (2008). Intervention type matters in primary prevention of abusive head injury: Event history analysis results. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(10), 949–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sacramento County Child Death Review Team. (2012). A twenty year analysis of child death data, 1990–2009. Sacramento County, CA: Sacramento County Child Death Review Team.Google Scholar
  93. Safe Kids Worldwide. (2014). New study: 14% of parents say they have left a child alone inside parked vehicle despite the risks of heatstroke. Retrieved December 14, 2014, from http://www.safekids.org/press-release/new-study-14-parents-say-they-have-left-child-alone-inside-parked-vehicle-despite
  94. Sanders, M. (1999). Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: Towards an empirically validated multilevel parenting and family support strategy for the prevention of behavior and emotional problems in children. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2(2), 71–90. doi: 10.1023/A:1021843613840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sanders, M., & Pidgeon, A. (2011). The role of parenting programmes in the prevention of child maltreatment. Australian Psychologist, 46(4), 199–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sanders, M. R. (2012). Development, evaluation, and multinational dissemination of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8, 345–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sanders, M. R., Dittman, C. K., Farruggia, S. P., & Keown, L. J. (2014). A comparison of online versus workbook delivery of a self-help positive parenting program. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 35(3), 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sanders, M. R., & Kirby, J. N. (2014). A public-health approach to improving parenting and promoting children’s well-being. Child Development Perspectives, 8(4), 250–257.Google Scholar
  99. Sanders, M. R., Kirby, J. N., Tellegen, C. L., & Day, J. J. (2014). The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A systematic review and meta-analysis of a multi-level system of parenting support. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(4), 337–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sanders, M. R., Pidgeon, A. M., Gravestock, F., Connors, M. D., Brown, S., & Young, R. W. (2004). Does parental attributional retraining and anger management enhance the effects of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program with parents at risk of child maltreatment? Behavior Therapy, 35(3), 513–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shanahan, M., Fleming, P., Nocera, M., Sullivan, K., Murphy, R., & Zolotor, A. (2014). Process evaluation of a statewide abusive head trauma prevention program. Evaluation and Program Planning, 47, 18–25. doi: 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2014.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Silovsky, J. F., Bard, D., Chaffin, M., Hecht, D., Burris, L., Owora, A., … Lutzker, J. (2011). Prevention of child maltreatment in high-risk rural families: A randomized clinical trial with child welfare outcomes. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(8), 1435–1444. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.04.023.
  103. Simon, H. K., Tamura, T., & Colton, K. (2003). Reported level of supervision of young children while in the bathtub. Ambulatory Pediatrics: The Official Journal of the Ambulatory Pediatric Association, 3(2), 106–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Smith, K. M., & deGuehery, K. A. (2008). Shaken baby syndrome education program: Nurses making a difference. MCN. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 33(6), 371–375. doi: 10.1097/01.NMC.0000341258.26169.d4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Starfield, B., Hyde, J., Gérvas, J., & Heath, I. (2008). The concept of prevention: A good idea gone astray? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62(7), 580–583. doi: 10.1136/jech.2007.071027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Starling, S. P., & Holden, J. R. (1995). Abusive head trauma: The relationship of perpetrators to their victims. Pediatrics, 95, 260–262.Google Scholar
  107. Stephenson, C. (2011, November 16). Milwaukee co-sleeping ad stirs nationwide debate. Journal Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.jsonline.com/news/milwaukee/milwaukee-cosleeping-ad-stirs-nationwide-debate-4m33572-133987863.html
  108. Stewart, T. C., Polgar, D., Gilliland, J., Tanner, D. A., Girotti, M. J., Parry, N., et al. (2011). Shaken baby syndrome and a triple-dose strategy for its prevention. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 71(6), 1801–1807, 1810.1097/TA.1800b1013e31823c31484a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Stoll, B., & Anderson, J. K. (2013). Prevention of abusive head trauma: A literature review. Pediatric Nursing, 39(6), 300–308.Google Scholar
  110. Sweet, M. A., & Appelbaum, M. I. (2004). Is home visiting an effective strategy? A meta-analytic review of home visiting programs for families with young children. Child Development, 75(5), 1435–1456. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00750.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. This PSA shows why it’s best for babies to sleep alone. (2014, December 6). The San Francisco Globe. Retrieved from http://sfglobe.com/2014/12/03/this-psa-shows-why-its-best-for-babies-to-sleep-alone/
  112. Thomas, R., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2012). Parent–child interaction therapy: An evidence-based treatment for child maltreatment. Child Maltreatment, 17(3), 253–266. doi: 10.1177/1077559512459555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thomas, R.-G. M. J. (2011). Accumulating evidence for parent-child interaction therapy in the prevention of child maltreatment. Child Development, 82(1), 177–192. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01548.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Timmer, S. G., Urquiza, A. J., Zebell, N. M., & McGrath, J. M. (2005). Parent-child interaction therapy: Application to maltreating parent-child dyads. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(7), 825–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Triple P. (n.d.-a). Five steps to positive parenting. Retrieved December 24, 2014, from http://www.triplep-parenting.net/glo-en/positive-parenting/five-steps-to-positive-parenting/
  116. Triple P. (n.d.-b). Positive parenting program. Retrieved December 23, 2014, from http://www.triplep-parenting.net/glo-en/triple-p/positive-parenting-program/
  117. Triple P. (n.d.-c). Triple P – The system explained. Retrieved December 24, 2014, from http://www.triplep.net/glo-en/the-triple-p-system-at-work/the-system-explained/
  118. U.S. Commission to End Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities. (2016). Within our reach: A national strategy to eliminate child abuse and neglect fatalities. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/resource/cecanf-final-report.
  119. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2013). HHS announces expansion of Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2013pres/09/20130906a.html
  120. Urquiza, A. J., & McNeil, C. B. (1996). Parent-child interaction therapy: An intensive dyadic intervention for physically abusive families. Child Maltreatment, 1(2), 134–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vincent, S. (2010a). Learning from child deaths and serious abuse. Edinburgh, UK: Dunedin Academic Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  122. Vincent, S. (2010b). Preventing child deaths: Learning from review. Edinburgh, UK: Dunedin Academic Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  123. Watts, E. (2013, February 13). PSA warns parents about baby sleeping dangers. FOX-5-KVVU-TV. Retrieved from http://www.fox5vegas.com/story/20808759/psa-warns-parents-about-baby-sleeping-dangers
  124. Whitaker, D. J., Ryan, K. A., Wild, R. C., Self-Brown, S., Lutzker, J. R., Shanley, J. R., … Hodges, A. E. (2012). Initial implementation indicators from a statewide rollout of SafeCare within a child welfare system. Child Maltreatment, 17(1), 96–101. doi: 10.1177/1077559511430722.
  125. Willheim, E. (2013). Dyadic psychotherapy with infants and young children: Child-parent psychotherapy. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 22(2), 215–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wright, B. M. (1986). Infant Mental Health Journal, 7(4), 247–263.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emily M. Douglas
    • 1
  1. 1.Bridgewater State UniversityBridgewaterUSA

Personalised recommendations