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Targeted Metabolomics: The Next Generation of Clinical Chemistry!

  • Klaus M. WeinbergerEmail author
  • Marc Breit
Chapter
Part of the Translational Bioinformatics book series (TRBIO, volume 11)

Abstract

Targeted metabolomics, i.e. the quantitation of predefined sets of endogenous metabolites selected for their relevance in metabolism, has emerged as a new and particularly informative discipline in functional genomics although its roots in diagnosing inborn disorders of metabolism in neonates go back much further than those of genomics or proteomics. Because of its unique capabilities in depicting actual physiological and pathophysiological conditions instead of just predispositions or risk factors, it seems ideally suited for complementing the currently established diagnostic platform technologies (enzyme assays, ion-selective electrodes, immunoassays, and molecular diagnostics) in a synergistic fashion. Of course, both technical and content-related prerequisites have to be met before a new technology can make any inroads in clinical practice and, so, this chapter discusses the development of metabolomics since the early twentieth century, the renaissance of clinical biochemistry in areas like neonatal screening and oncology, the most promising new indications, in which diagnostically relevant metabolic biomarker signatures have been identified and – partly – also validated and, eventually, selected risks and opportunities that have to be kept in mind when trying to promote this area of research and development. Bottom line: there is substantial reason to believe that targeted metabolomics can be the new platform technology in clinical chemistry if the community succeeds in taking advantage of the obvious strengths of this discipline and in avoiding some of the pitfalls that have hindered clinical acceptance for other varieties of functional genomics.

Keywords

Clinical chemistry Targeted metabolomics Multiparametric biomarkers Chemometrics Biochemical interpretation 

Abbreviations

AAA

aromatic amino acids

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

AMD

age-related macular degeneration

AUC

area under the curve

BCAA

branched-chain amino acids

CKD

chronic kidney disease

CNS

central nervous system

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CV

coefficient of variation

DBS

dried blood spots

DN

diabetic nephropathy

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DoE

design of experiments

EBV

Epstein-Barr virus

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

EMA

European Medicines Agency

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FRET

fluorescence resonance energy transfer

GO

Gene Ontology

GWAS

genome-wide association studies

HCV

hepatitis C virus

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

HTA

health technology assessment

IP

intellectual property

IVD

in vitro diagnostics

KEGG

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

LIMS

laboratory information management system

MSEA

metabolite set enrichment analyses

M2-PK

M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase

NBS

newborn screening

NGS

next-generation sequencing

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

PCA

principle components analysis

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

PDE

phosphodiesterase

PLS-DA

partial least squares discriminant analysis

PPV

positive predictive value

P4

predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory

RIA

radio-immunoassay

RNA

ribonucleic acid

ROC

receiver operating characteristics

RSD

relative standard deviation

R4S

Region 4 Stork

SAM

standard addition method

SID

stable isotope dilution

SMRT

single molecule real-time

SVM

support vector machine

TCM

traditional chinese medicine

TDM

therapeutic drug monitoring

T2D

type II diabetes

ZDF

Zucker diabetic fatty

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Group for Clinical Bioinformatics, Institute of Electrical and Biomedical Engineering (IEBE)University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT)Hall in TirolAustria
  2. 2.sAnalytiCo LtdBelfastUK
  3. 3.Weinberger & Weinberger Life Sciences ConsultingMiemingAustria
  4. 4.Institute of Health Care Engineering with European Notified Body of Medical DevicesGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria

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