Phylogeography of Seaweeds in the South East Pacific: Complex Evolutionary Processes Along a Latitudinal Gradient

  • Marie-Laure Guillemin
  • Myriam Valero
  • Florence Tellier
  • Erasmo C. Macaya
  • Christophe Destombe
  • Sylvain Faugeron
Chapter

Abstract

The coast along the temperate South East Pacific (SEP) presents a simple linear topography with a north-south orientation spanning more than 4600 km. However, environmental heterogeneity associated with two major biogeographic boundaries has been described along the SEP (30–33°S and 42°S). Recent phylogeographic studies of seaweeds revealed the existence of different cryptic species along the SEP coast and that most of the genetic breaks between them are broadly congruent with the biogeographic boundaries. These phylogeographic patterns characterized by genetic discontinuities could be attributed to historical vicariance or to budding speciation. For SEP seaweeds, two major phylogeographic patterns are observed. Endemic species living north of 42°S show complex haplotype networks and an almost complete genetic isolation between populations located only a few kilometres from each other. This extreme genetic patchiness has been related to the combined effects of limited dispersal, reduced population size and high population turnover of these intertidal seaweeds due to stochastic effects of climatic and tectonic catastrophes. On the other hand, species with a range distribution limited to the south of 42°S and inhabiting the area highly affected by the coastal ice cap during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), show typical signatures of post-glacial demographic expansion. Finally, molecular studies reveal that several species are recent immigrants from New Zealand, demonstrating the importance of oceanic dispersal in shaping the diversity of the SEP.

Keywords

Biogeographic boundaries Budding speciation Chile Cryptic species Phylogeographic breaks Post-glacial recolonization 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie-Laure Guillemin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Myriam Valero
    • 2
  • Florence Tellier
    • 3
  • Erasmo C. Macaya
    • 4
    • 5
  • Christophe Destombe
    • 2
  • Sylvain Faugeron
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Austral de ChileValdiviaChile
  2. 2.CNRS, Sorbonne UniversitésUPMC University Paris VI, UMI 3614, Evolutionary Biology and Ecology of Algae, Station Biologique de RoscoffRoscoffFrance
  3. 3.Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Católica de la Santísima ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  4. 4.Laboratorio de Estudios Algales (ALGALAB), Departamento de OceanografíaUniversidad de ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  5. 5.Millennium Nucleus Ecology and Sustainable Management of Oceanic Island (ESMOI)CoquimboChile
  6. 6.Centro de Conservación Marina and CeBiB, Facultad de Ciencias BiológicasPontificia Universidad Católica de ChileSantiagoChile

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