Genetic Alternations in Common Cancers
Each of the roughly 100 types of human cancer is caused by the activation of proto-oncogenes and the loss of tumor suppressor genes. Although cancer genomes are complex, some clear mutational patterns are apparent. Several cancer genes are observed very frequently in some types of cancer, but rarely found in other types. Other cancer genes are much more widespread across many types of cancer. Analysis of many cancer genomes has shown that nearly 150 genes are recurrently altered by mutations to provide tumor cells a selective growth advantage. These studies have shown that there are many potential combinations of cancer genes that can cooperatively allow the growth of different types of neoplasia.
KeywordsFamilial Adenomatous Polyposis Hodgkin Lymphoma TP53 Mutation Endometrioid Carcinoma Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer
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