Advertisement

Modeling to Predict High Pb Areas

  • Kirsten SchwarzEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

In many older US cities, the amount of lead in soil is elevated well beyond natural background levels (Zhai et al. 2003; Mielke et al. 2004; Wong et al. 2006). Lead is naturally present in very low levels in soil; however, soil lead in cities is a legacy pollutant – one that has persisted in landscapes long after historic inputs have been reduced. Although still present in some consumer products, lead was phased out of two major anthropogenic sources, lead-based paint and leaded gasoline, in the 1970s and 1980s (Kerr and Newell 2003). Lead’s many useful properties – soft, malleable, and stable – made it a candidate for industrial additives. Lead was added to paint as a pigment and to make it more durable and to gasoline to reduce engine knocking caused by the incomplete combustion of fuel. Once released into the environment, lead persists for a very long time. Lead particles released in car exhaust and chipping, peeling old paint can bind to soil, where they remain – sometimes for centuries (Reiners et al. 1975; Smith and Siccama 1981). This is why lead, a legacy pollutant, is still considered a contemporary public health concern – new inputs have been curtailed but legacy lead remains. Soil lead is quite ubiquitous in the urban environment, dispersed along road networks through the combustion of leaded gasoline and surrounding a large proportion of our nation’s older housing stock through the application of lead-based paint. In addition, soil lead can continue to be redistributed through the urban environment with the air-and water-borne transport of soil particles.

Keywords

Land Cover Blood Lead Level Housing Stock Urban Land Cover Land Cover Feature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aschengrau A, Beiser A, Bellinger D, Copenhafer D, Weitzman M (1994) The impact of soil Pb abatement on urban children’s blood Pb levels: phase II results from the Boston Pb-in-soil demonstration project. Environ Res 67:125–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Breiman L, Friedman J, Stone CJ, Olshen RA (1984) Classification and regression trees. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Browne FL, Laughnan DF (1953) Effect of coating thickness on the performance of house paints under different programs of maintenance. Off Dig 338:137–159Google Scholar
  4. Cattle JA, McBratney AB, Minasny B (2002) Kriging method evaluation for assessing the spatial distribution of urban soil Pb contamination. J Environ Qual 31:1576–1588CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (2012) CDC response to advisory committee on childhood lead poisoning prevention recommendations in “Low level lead exposure harms children: A renewed call of primary prevention.” Atlanta. US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/acclpp/final_document_030712.pdf. Accessed 1 Nov 2013
  6. Chaney RL, Sterrett SB, Mielke HW (1984) The potential for heavy metal exposure from urban gardens and soil. In: Preer JR (ed) Proc. symp. heavy metals in urban gardens. univ. dist. Columbia Extension Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark HF, Hausladen D, Brabander DJ (2008) Urban gardens: lead exposure, recontamination mechanisms, and implications for remediation design. Environ Res 107(3):312–319CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cook R, Ni L (2007) Elevated soil lead: statistical modeling and apportionment of contributions from lead-based paint and leaded gasoline. Ann Appl Stat 1(1):130–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Craigmill A, Harivandi A (2010) Home gardens and lead: what you should know about growing plants in lead-contaminated soil. University of California Agriculture and Natural ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  10. Cutler DR, Edwards TC Jr, Beard KH, Cutler A, Hess KT, Gibson J, Lawler JJ (2007) Random forests for classification in ecology. Ecology 88(11):2783–2792CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. De’ath G, Fabricius KE (2000) Classification and regression trees: a powerful yet simple technique for ecological data analysis. Ecology 81(11):3178–3192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Duggan MJ, Inskip MJ (1985) Childhood exposure to Pb in surface dust and soil: a community health problem. Public Health Rev 13:1–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kelly J, Thornton I, Simpson PR (1996) Urban geochemistry: a study of the influence of anthropogenic activity on the heavy metal content of soils in traditionally industrial and non-industrial areas of Britain. Appl Geochem 11:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kerr S, Newell RG (2003) Policy-induced technology adoption: evidence from the U.S. lead phasedown. J Ind Econ 51(3):317–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koller K, Brown T, Spurgeon A, Levy L (2004) Recent developments in low-level Pb exposure and intellectual impairment in children. Environ Health Perspect 112(9):987–994CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Lagerwerff JV, Specht AW (1970) Contamination of roadside soil and vegetation with cadmium, nickel, lead, and zinc. Environ Sci Technol 4(7):583–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Laidlaw MA, Filippelli GM (2008) Resuspension of urban soils as a persistent source of lead poisoning in children: a review and new directions. Appl Geochem 23(8):2021–2039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lanphear BP, Dietrich K, Auinger P, Cox C (2000) Cognitive deficits associated with blood Pb concentrations <10 mg/dL in US children and adolescents. Public Health Rep 115:521–529CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Machemer S, Hosick T (2004) Determination of soil Pb variability in residential soil for remediation decision making. Water Air Soil Pollut 151(1):305–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mielke HW (1999) Pb in the inner cities. Am Sci 87(1):62–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mielke HW, Anderson JC, Berry KJ, Mielke PW, Chaney RL, Leech M (1983) Lead concentrations in inner-city soils as a factor in the child lead problem. Am J Public Health 73(12):1366–1369CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Mielke HW, Dugas D, Mielke PW Jr, Smith KS, Gonzales CR (1997) Associations between soil Pb and childhood blood Pb in urban New Orleans and rural Lafourche Parish, Louisiana. Environ Health Perspect 105(9):950–954CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Mielke HW, Wang G, Gonzales CR, Powell ET, Le B, Quach VN (2004) PAHs and metals in the soils of inner-city and suburban New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 18(3):243–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Motto HL, Daines RH, Chilko DM, Motto CK (1970) Pb in soils and plants: its relationship to traffic volume and proximity to highways. Environ Sci Technol 4(3):231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mushak P, Crocetti A (1990) Methods for reducing lead exposure in young children and other risk groups: an integrated summary of a report to the US Congress on childhood lead poisoning. Environ Health Perspect 89:125CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Reiners WA, Marks RH, Vitousek PM (1975) Heavy metals in subalpine and alpine soils of New Hampshire. Oikos 26:264–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Root RA (2000) Lead loading of urban streets by motor vehicle wheel weights. Environ Health Perspect 108(10):937CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Schwarz K, Pickett STA, Lathrop RG, Weathers KC, Pouyat RV, Cadenasso ML (2012) The effects of the urban built environment on the spatial distribution of lead in residential soils. Environ Pollut 163:32–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Schwarz K et al (2013) A comparison of three empirically based, spatially explicit predictive models of residential soil Pb concentrations in Baltimore, Maryland, USA: understanding the variability within cities. Environ Geochem Health 35(4):495–510Google Scholar
  30. Shannon MW (1996) Etiology of childhood lead poisoning. In: Pueschel SM, Linakis JG, Anderson AC (eds) Lead poisoning in childhood. Brooks Publishing Co, Baltimore, pp 37–58Google Scholar
  31. Silbergeld EK (1992) Neurological perspective on lead toxicity. In: Needleman HL (ed) Human lead exposure. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 89–103Google Scholar
  32. Smith WH, Siccama TG (1981) The Hubbard Brook ecosystem study: biogeochemistry of lead in the northern hardwood forest. J Environ Qual 10(3):323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang J, Ren H, Liu J, Yu J, Zhang X (2006) Distribution of Pb in urban soil and its potential risk in Shenyang City, China. Chin Geogr Sci 16(2):127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Weathers KC, Lovett GM, Likens GE, Lathrop R (2000) The effect of landscape features on deposition to Hunter Mountain, Catskill Mountains, New York. Ecol Appl 10(2):528–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Weathers KC, Simkin SM, Lovett GM, Lindberg SE (2006) Empirical modeling of atmospheric deposition in mountainous landscapes. Ecol Appl 16:1590–1607CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wong CSC, Li X, Thornton I (2006) Urban environmental geochemistry of trace metals. Environ Pollut 142(1):1–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Wright JP, Dietrich KN, Ris MD, Hornung RW, Wessel SD, Lanphear BP, Ho M, Rae MN (2008) Association of prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations with criminal arrests in early adulthood. PLoS Med 5(5):732–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yesilonis I, Pouyat R, Neerchal NK (2008) Spatial distribution of metals in soils in Baltimore, Maryland: role of native parent material, proximity to major roads, housing age and screening guidelines. Environ Pollut 156(3):723–731CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhai M, Kampunzu HAB, Modisi MP, Totolo O (2003) Distribution of heavy metals in Gaborone urban soils (Botswana) and its relationship to soil pollution and bedrock composition. Environ Geol 45(2):171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biological SciencesNorthern Kentucky UniversityHighland HeightsUSA

Personalised recommendations