Advertisement

The Thoracic Cage of KSD-VP-1/1

  • Bruce M. LatimerEmail author
  • C. Owen Lovejoy
  • Linda Spurlock
  • Yohannes Haile-Selassie
Chapter
Part of the Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology book series (VERT)

Abstract

Ribs are naturally fragile and, as a consequence, are rarely preserved in the fossil record. The costal elements recovered from the KSD-VP-1/1 partial skeleton are important evidence allowing reconstruction of the hominin thoracic cage. The ribs of KSD-VP-1/1 are examined with respect to their implications for the evolution of Australopithecus afarensis thoracic morphology. Angulation and torsion along the rib corpus and rib declination indicate a broad upper thorax and a deeply invaginated thoracic vertebral column. Implications for the early hominin thoracic bauplan are discussed.

Keywords

Australopithecus Thorax Ribs 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Ethiopia and administrative offices of the Afar Regional State of Ethiopia for field and laboratory research permits. We thank M. Decker, S. Simpson, and two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments. We also thank D. Su for help with figures. The Woranso-Mille project was financially supported by grants from The Leakey Foundation, The Wenner-Gren Foundation, The National Geographic Society, The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, and The National Science Foundation (BCS-0234320, BCS-0321893, BCS-0542037, BCS-1124705, BCS-1124713, BCS-1124716, BCS-1125157, and BCS-1125345).

References

  1. Aiello, L., & Dean, C. (1990). An introduction to human evolutionary anatamy. London: Academic Press Harcourt Brace & Company.Google Scholar
  2. Bastir, M., Martinez, D. G., Recheis, W., Barash, A., Coquerelle, M., Rios, L., et al. (2013). Differencial growth and development of the upper and lower human thorax. PLoS ONE, 8, e75128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bellemare, F., Jeanneret, A., & Couture, J. (2003). Sex differences in thoracic dimensions and configuration. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 168, 305–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bellemare, F., Fuamba, T., & Bourgeault, A. (2006). Sexual dimorphism of human ribs. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 150, 233–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bramble, D. M., & Carrier, D. R. (1983). Running and breathing in mammals. Science, 219, 251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burstein, A. H., & Wright, T. M. (1994). Fundamentals of orthopaedic biomechanics. New York: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  7. Christiansen, B. A., & Bouxsein, M. L. (2010). Biomechanics of vertebral fractures and the vertebral fracture cascade. Current Osteoporosis Reports, 8, 198–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cook, D. C., Buikstra, J. E., DeRousseau, C. J., & Johanson, D. C. (1983). Vertebral pathology in the afar Australopithecines. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 60, 83–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cotter, M. M., Loomis, D. A., Simpson, S. W., Latimer, B., & Hernandez, C. J. (2011). Human evolution and osteoporosis-related spinal fractures. PLoS ONE, 6, e26658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Daley, M. A., Bramble, D. M., & Carrier, D. R. (2013). Impact loading and locomotor-respiratory coordination significantly influence breathing dynamics in running humans. PLoS ONE, 8, e70752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Doran, D. M. (1997). Ontogeny of locomotion in mountain gorillas and chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution, 32, 323–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Drapeau, M. S. (2004). Functional anatomy of the olecranon process in hominoids and plio-pleistocene hominins. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 124, 297–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Franciscus, R. G., & Churchill, S. E. (2002). The costal skeleton of Shanidar 3 and a reappraisal of Neandertal thoracic morphology. Journal of Human Evolution, 42, 303–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gómez-Olivencia, A., Eaves-Johnson, K. L., Franciscus, R. G., Carretero, J. M., & Arsuaga, J. L. (2009). Kebara 2: New insights regarding the most complete Neandertal thorax. Journal of Human Evolution, 57, 75–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haile-Selassie, Y., Saylor, B. Z., Deino, A., Alene, M., & Latimer, B. M. (2010a). New hominid fossils from Woranso-Mille (Central Afar, Ethiopia) and taxonomy of early Australopithecus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 141, 406–417.Google Scholar
  16. Haile-Selassie, Y., Latimer, B. L., Alene, M., Deino, A., Gibert, L., Melillo, S. M., et al. (2010b). An early Australopithecus afarensis postcranium from Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 107, 12121–12126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Haile-Selassie, Y., Latimer, B. M., Lovejoy, C. O., Melillo, S. M., & Meyer, M. R. (2016). Conclusion: Implications of KSD-VP-1/1 for early hominin paleobiology and insights into the chimpanzee/human last common ancestor. In: Y. Haile-Selassie & D. F. Su (Eds.), The postcranial anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis: New insights from KSD-VP-1/1 (pp. 179–188). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Hunt, K. D. (1991). Mechanical implications of chimpanzee positional behavior. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 86, 521–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jellema, L. M., Latimer, B., & Walker, A. (1993). The rib cage. In A. Walker & R. E. Leakey (Eds.), The Nariokotome Homo erectus Skeleton (pp. 294–325). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kagaya, M., Ogihara, N., & Nakatsukasa, M. (2008). Morphological study of the anthropoid thoracic cage: Scaling of thoracic width and an analysis of rib curvature. Primates, 49, 89–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Keith, A. (1923). Man’s posture: Its evolution and disorders. British Medical Journal, 1, 451–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Latimer, B., & Ward, C. V. (1993). The thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. In A. Walker & R. E. Leakey (Eds.), The Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton (pp. 266–293). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lovejoy, C. O. (1974). The gait of australopithecines. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 16, 18–30.Google Scholar
  24. Lovejoy, C. O. (2005). The natural history of human gait and posture II: hip and thigh. Gait and Posture, 21, 129–151.Google Scholar
  25. Lovejoy, C. O., & McCollum, M. (2010). Spinopelvic pathways to bipedality: why no hominids ever relied on a bent-hip–bent-knee gait. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 365, 3289–3299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lovejoy, C.O., Latimer, B. M., Spurlock, L., & Haile-Selassie, Y. (2016). The pelvic girdle and limb bones of KSD-VP-1/1. In Y. Haile-Selassie & D. F. Su (Eds.), The postcranial anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis: new insights from KSD-VP-1/1 (pp. 155–178). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Lovejoy, C. O., Simpson, S. W., White, T. D., Asfaw, B., & Suwa, G. (2009a). Careful climbing in the Miocene: the forelimbs of Ardipithecus ramidus and humans are primitive. Science, 326, 70e71–70e78.Google Scholar
  28. Lovejoy, C. O., Suwa, G., Simpson, S. W., Matternes, J. H., & White, T. D. (2009b). The great divides: Ardipithecus ramidus reveals the postcrania of our last common ancestors with African apes. Science, 326, 100–106.Google Scholar
  29. Masharawi, Y., Dar, G., Peleg, S., Steinberg, N., Medlej, B., Kay, H., et al. (2010). A morphological adaptation of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae to lumbar hyperlordosis in young and adult females. European Spine Journal, 19, 768–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McCollum, M. A., Rosenman, B. A., Suwa, G., Meindl, R. S., & Lovejoy, C. O. (2009). The vertebral formula of the last common ancestor of African apes and humans. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 314B, 123–134.Google Scholar
  31. Ohman, J. C. (1986). The first rib of hominoids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 70, 209–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Openshaw, P., Edwards, S., & Helms, P. (1984). Changes in rib cage geometry during childhood. Thorax, 39, 624–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ryan, T. M., & Sukhdeo, S. (2016). KSD-VP 1/1: Analysis of the postcranial skeleton using high-resolution Computed Tomography. In Y. Haile-Selassie & D. F. Su (Eds.), The Postcranial Anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis: New Insights from KSD-VP-1/1 (pp. 39–62). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Sawyer, G. J., & Maley, B. (2005). Neanderthal reconstructed. The Anatomical Record (part B: New Anatomy) 238B, 23–31.Google Scholar
  35. Schmid, P., Churchill, S. E., Nalla, S., Weissen, E., Carlson, K. J., et al. (2013). Mosaic morphology in the thorax of Australopithecus sediba. Science, 340, 1234598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schmid, P. (1991). The trunk of the Australopithecus. In Y. Coppens & B. Senut (Eds.), Origine(s) de la bipedie chez les hominides (pp. 225–234). Cahiers de Paleoanthropologie, Editions du CNRS. Paris.Google Scholar
  37. Schultz, A. H. (1961). Vertebral column and thorax. In H. Hofer, A. H. Schultz, & D. Starck (Eds.), Primatologia-Handbook of Primatology (Vol. 4, pp. 1–66). Basel/New York, NY: Karger.Google Scholar
  38. Scoles, P. V. (1991). Vertebral alterations in Scheuermann’s kyphosis. Spine, 16, 509–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Simpson, S. W., Quade, J., Levin, N. E., Butler, R., Dupont-Nivet, G., Everett, M., et al. (2008). A female Homo erectus pelvis from Gona, Ethiopia. Science, 322, 1089–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Simpson, S. W., Lovejoy, C. O., & Latimer, B. M. (in review). Why do knuckle-walking African apes knuckle-walk? The Anatomical Record.Google Scholar
  41. Stern, J. T. (2000). Climbing to the top: A personal memoir of Australopithecus afarensis. Evolutionary Anthropology, 9, 113–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stern, J. T., & Susman, R. L. (1983). The locomotor anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 60, 279–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tague, R. G., & Lovejoy, C. O. (1986). The obstetric pelvis of AL 288-1 (Lucy). Journal of Human Evolution, 15, 237–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Todd, T. W. (1912). The decent of the shoulder after birth. Anatomischer Anzeiger, 41, 385–397.Google Scholar
  45. Ward, C. V., Kimbel, W. H., Harmon, E. H., & Johanson, D. C. (2012). New postcranial fossils of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar, Ethiopia (1990-2007). Journal of Human Evolution, 63, 1–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. White, T. D., Asfaw, B., Beyene, Y., Haile-Selassie, Y., Lovejoy, C. O., & Suwa, G. (2009). Ardipithecus ramidus and the paleobiology of early hominids. Science, 326, 75–86.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce M. Latimer
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • C. Owen Lovejoy
    • 2
    • 3
  • Linda Spurlock
    • 3
    • 2
  • Yohannes Haile-Selassie
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Orthodontics School of Dental MedicineCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical AnthropologyCleveland Museum of Natural HistoryClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of Anthropology and Division of Biomedical SciencesKent State UniversityKentUSA

Personalised recommendations