Modeling Canopy Photosynthesis

Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 42)

Summary

Canopy photosynthesis models (CPMs) calculate canopy photosynthetic rate as a sum of leaf photosynthetic rate. Here we focus on one-dimensional CPMs and show that simulated rates of canopy photosynthesis vary depending on whether multiple layers or a monolayer are considered and on whether direct and diffuse light sources are considered. We discuss how canopy photosynthetic rates vary depending on plant traits, which can differ within and among species; canopy photosynthetic rates are sensitive to leaf area index, light extinction coefficient, leaf photosynthetic capacity (photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency), and nitrogen allocation between leaves. CPMs can predict exchange rates not only for carbon but also for water and energy. The predicted rates are consistent with observations. Finally, we describe how CPMs have been utilized for vegetation and global studies.

Keywords

Atmosphere-ecosystem interaction Big-leaf model Canopy photosynthesis Diffuse light Direct light Energy balance Global environmental change Leaf area index Light extinction coefficient Multi-layer model Thermally produced turbulence effect Uncertainty and model validation 

Abbreviations (See Table 9.1 for Parameters in Box 9.2)

A

Photosynthetic rate

al

Albedo

aV

Slope of Vcmax-N relationship

BLM

Big-leaf model

Ci

Intercellular CO2 partial pressure

cp

Specific heat of air

CPM

Canopy photosynthesis model

d

Zero-plane displacement

E

Evapotranspiration rate

e

Vapor pressure

G

Heat flux into thermal storage

g

Conductance

GPP

Gross primary production

H

Sensible heat flux

Ic

Absorbed light per unit leaf area

IBP

International Biological Programme

k

Extinction coefficient

L

Cumulative leaf area index

LUE

Light use efficiency

l

Monin-Obukhov length

LAI

Leaf area index

ma

and me Molecular weights of air and water

MDDM

Multi-layer model under direct-diffuse light

MSM

Multi-layer model with simple light extinction

N

Nitrogen content

NDVI

Normalized difference vegetation index

NEE

Net ecosystem CO2 exchange

NPP

Net primary production

P

Atmospheric pressure

PFD

Photosynthetially active photon flux density

R

Radiation

RE

Ecosystem respiration

SS

Sun-shade big-leaf model

T

Temperature

u

Wind velocity

Vcmax

Maximum rate of carboxylation

z

Height

z0H

and z0M Roughness lengths for heat and momentum

γ

Psychrometric constant in Eq. 9.6

κ

von Karman constant

ρ

Density of air

λ

Heat of vaporization

θ

Convexity of photosynthetic curves

χH

and χM Dimensionless temperature and velocity profiles

Xdif

X for diffuse light

Xdir

X for direct light

Xsca

X for scattering light

Xsh

X for shade leaf

Xsca

X for sunlit leaf

n

Value of X at the top of the canopy

Xt

Value of X per ground area

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Niels Anten for valuable comments. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Nos. 21114009 and 21114010), by KAKENHI (Nos. 20677001, 25291095, 20323503 and 25660113) and by CREST, JST, Japan.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kouki Hikosaka
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tomo’omi Kumagai
    • 3
  • Akihiko Ito
    • 4
  1. 1.Graduate School of Life SciencesTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  2. 2.CRESTJSTTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Institute for Space-Earth EnvironmentalNagoya UniversityChikusa-kuJapan
  4. 4.National Institute for Environmental StudiesTsukubaJapan

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