Modeling Leaf Gas Exchange

Summary

Leaves are photosynthetic organs that absorb light and convert the photon energy of light to chemical energy for use in CO2 assimilation. Here we review how CO2 assimilation rates vary, depending on environmental factors and among leaves. Net CO2 assimilation is a balance between the carboxylation of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) catalyzed by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and the release of CO2 by photorespiration and mitochondrial respiration. The steady-state biochemical model of CO2 assimilation considers photosynthetic metabolism as a composite of two processes, namely, RuBP carboxylation and regeneration. The former, modeled based on the Rubisco kinetics, is limited mainly by CO2 supply, whereas the latter is assumed to be limited by the rate of photon absorption at low light and by its use in electron transport at high light. CO2 concentration at the assimilation sites in chloroplasts depends on the stomatal and mesophyll conductances for CO2 diffusion. Both these conductances are sensitive to environmental variables, but no mechanistic models of environmental responses for these conductances are available. Various empirical models have been developed and combined with the biochemical photosynthesis model allowing for expression of CO2 assimilation rates as a function of environmental variables.

Keywords

CO2 assimilation CO2 response Dark respiration Day respiration Interspecific variation Light response Mesophyll conductance Rubisco Stomatal conductance Temperature dependence 

Abbreviations

A

Net CO2 assimilation rate

Ac

RuBP-saturated A

Aj

RuBP-limited A

Amax

Maximum A (photosynthetic capacity)

At

A limited by TP use

ABA

Abscisic acid

AOX

Cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase

Bn

Net anabolic NADH supply

CaCc, Cf and Ci

CO2 partial pressures at air, chloroplast, leaf surface and intercellular space respectively

cp

Heat capacity of air

CP

Cytochrome pathway

D

Leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit

D0

Fitted parameter for D in Eq. 3.29

dmin

Minimum ion diffusion rate in modelingstomatal conductance in Eq. 3.36

E

Evapotranspiration rate

Ea

Activation energy

Eo

Activation energy of the respiratory pathway

Eoref

Activation energy at the reference temperature

fi and fref

Value of f at T = ∞ and the reference temperature

fm

Fraction of photorespiratory NADH that remains in mitochondria

Fv/Fm

Maximum dark-adapted quantum yield for photosystem II

fΨv

Sensitivity of stomata to leaf water potential

FADH2

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

g

Total diffusion conductance for CO2 from air to chloroplasts

g0 and g1

Fitted parameters for stomatal conductance

gbgm, and gs

Conductances for CO2 diffusion across boundary layer, mesophyll and stomata

gbh

Leaf boundary layer for heat conductance

gc

Leaf CO2 conductance including stomatal and boundary layer conductances

gwc

Leaf water vapor conductance including stomatal and boundary layer conductances

H

Sensible heatflux

Hd

Energy of deactivation

hr

Relative humidity at the leaf surface

HT

High temperature

I

Photosynthetically active photon flux density (irradiance)

J

Electron transport rate

Jmax

Maximum J

Kc and Ko

Michaelis–Menten constants for carboxylation and oxygenation

kcat

Rubisco turnover rate (rate of CO2 fixation per Rubisco active site)

Ktot

Hydraulic conductance for the whole plant

LMA

Leaf mass per area

LT

Low temperature

m

Empirical constant in Eq. 3.32

M

Plant dry mass

MDH

Malate dehydrogenase

NADHm

Fraction of photorespiratory NADH that remains in mitochondria

NDs

Type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases

O

O2 partial pressure in chloroplasts

OAA

Oxaloacetic acid

OPPP

Oxidative pentose phosphate pathway

Pg and Pe

Pressure potentials of the guard cells and the bulk epidermal cells

Pp

Export rate of triose phosphate

PDH

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

PEPCase

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

PGA

3-phosphoglycerate

PQ

Plastoquinone

PSII

Photosystem II

Q10

Ratio of the process rate at a reference temperature + 10 K to the rate at the reference temperature

r

Total resistance to CO2 diffusion from air to chloroplasts

rb, rm, and rs

Resistances to CO2 diffusion at boundary layer, mesophyll, and stomata

rwb and rws

Resistances to water vapor at boundary layer and stomata

R

Universal gas constant

RC

Rate of non-photorespiratory CO2 release

Rd

Respiration rate in the light

Rg

Growth respiration coefficient

Rm

Maintenance respiration rate

Rn

Respiration rate in the dark

RN

Net radiation

RO

Rate of non-photorespiratory O2 consumption

RPR

Photorespiratory rate

Rref

Respiration rate at the reference temperature

Rmin

Minimum Rd

RGR

Relative growth rate

Rubisco

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

RuBP

Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate

Sc

Chloroplast surface area

Sc/o

Relative specificity of Rubisco (specificity factor)

SV

Sensitivity parameter in Eq. 3.38

SA and SD

Starch-accumulating and deficient species

TP

Triose-phosphate

Tl and Ta

Leaf and air temperatures

Tk

Temperature in Kelvin

Topt

Optimal temperature

Tref

Reference temperature

Tsky

Temperature of the sky

UCP

Uncoupling protein

UQ

Ubiquinone

Vby

Rate of carbon flow to CO2 as a by-product of flows into anabolic products

Vc

Rate of carboxylation

Vcat

Rate of CO2 release due to catabolic substrate oxidation

Vcmax

Maximum Vc

Vo

Rate of oxygenation

Vopc

CO2 release rate from substrate oxidation via cytosolic OPPP

Vomax

Maximum Vo

Vopp

CO2 release rate from substrate oxidation via chloroplastic OPPP

Vpx

Photo-reductant export rate

VPD

Vapor pressure deficit

Wa and Wi

Water vapor pressures in air and intercellular air space

α

Leaf absorptance

αS and αIR

Shortwave and infraredabsorptances

βa

Empirical constant in Eq. 3.34

γ and ξ

Empirical constants in Eq. 3.36

δ

Coefficient to describe dynamic response of Eo to temperature

δw

Thickness of mesophyll cell wall

ΔS

Entropy term

ε

Leaf long-wave emissivity

φ

Ratio of RuBPoxygenation to carboxylation rates

ϕx

Initial slopes of the light response curve

Γ

CO2 compensation point of CO2 assimilation

Γ*

CO2 compensation point of CO2 assimilation in the absence of Rd

λ

Heat of vaporization

λs

Marginal water cost of carbon gain

πa

Osmotic potential of apoplastic water near the stomatal guard cells

πe

Osmotic potential of epidermis cells

πg

Osmotic potential in the guard cells

θx

Curvature factors in Eqs. 3.11, 3.12 and 3.16

ρ

Shortwave reflectance of the surroundings

σ

Stefan–Boltzmann constant

τ

Scale Ro to a daily rate

τa

ATP concentration in the guard cells

υ

Slope of light response of Rd

χ

Hydraulic conductance between the bulk epidermis and stomatal guard cells

ψe

Water potential of epidermis cell

ψg

Water potential of guard cell

ψref

Reference potential

ψs

Soilwater potential

ψV

Bulk leaf water potential

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Life SciencesTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  2. 2.CRESTJSTTokyoJapan
  3. 3.School of Life SciencesTokyo University of Pharmacy and Life SciencesHachiojiJapan
  4. 4.School of ScienceThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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