Skip to main content

Part of the book series: International Handbooks of Population ((IHOP,volume 6))

Abstract

Motivated by growing public and policy concerns with the social implications of climate change, this chapter reviews theory and research on the environmental dimensions of human migration. Recent research on migration-environment connections employs a variety of methods including time series analysis to capture the dynamic nature of migrant flows, multilevel modeling to account for nested data structures, agent-based modeling to incorporate feedback mechanisms, and qualitative ethnographic approaches to investigate causal pathways between environmental triggers and migration responses. Historical analogs and research in disaster settings have also provided useful insight. Findings reveal that the natural environment can act as a ‘push’ factor when livelihoods are challenged by chronic long-term, or rapid onset, environmental change. Scholarly work also stresses the reciprocal impacts of migration on the environment, with negative and positive ecosystem effects in both origin and destination communities. Finally, recent research has employed empirical simulation of migration as related to projected environmental scenarios, suggesting future increases in environmentally-influenced migration flows. However, the study of the migration-environment connection is still nascent and a number of areas deserve additional research attention. These include investigation of migration form and distance (domestic vs. international), rural-urban linkages, health aspects, and social inequalities as both amplifier and implication of environmental migration. In closing, we draw attention to the disconnect between scientific studies and policy debates and call for an increase in interdisciplinary collaborations, bridging the natural – social science divide and fostering interactions with advocacy groups and policymakers.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 259.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    The December 2010 issue of Population and Environment presented a collection of papers on “Human Migration and the Environment,” while a 2011 supplement of International Migration was devoted to “Environmental Induced Migration in the Context of Social Vulnerability”.

  2. 2.

    Squalli (2009) made use of a framework of relevance in considering the migration-environment association. STIRPAT represents an extension of the more commonly known IPAT equation (Environmental Impact = Population * Affluence * Technology). The expansion, Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology allows for elasticities within the decomposition exercise (Dietz and Rosa 1994).

References

  • Abdelali-Marini, M., Goldey, P., Jones, G., & Bailey, E. (2003). Towards a feminization of agricultural labour in Northwest Syria. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 30(2), 71–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adamo, S. B. (2010). Environmental migration and cities in the context of global environmental change. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2(3), 161–165.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Afifi, T. (2011). Economic or environmental migration? The push factors in Niger. International Migration, 49(S1), 95–124.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alscher, S. (2011). Environmental degradation and migration on Hispaniola Island. International Migration, 49(S1), 164–187.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alston, L. J., Libecap, G. D., & Mueller, B. (2000). Land reform policies, the sources of violent conflict, and implications for deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 39(2), 162–188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Auchincloss, A. H., & Roux, A. V. D. (2008). A new tool for epidemiology: The usefulness of dynamic-agent models in understanding place effects on health. American Journal of Epidemiology, 168(1), 1–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barbieri, A. F., Domingues, E., Queiroz, B. L., Ruiz, R. M., Rigotti, J. I., Carvalho, J. A. M., & Resende, M. F. (2010). Climate change and population migration in Brazil’s Northeast: Scenarios for 2025–2050. Population and Environment, 31(5), 344–370.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bates, D., & Rudel, T. K. (2004). Climbing the “agricultural ladder”: Social mobility and motivations for migration in an Ecuadorian colonist community. Rural Sociology, 69(1), 59–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bardsley, D. K., & Hugo, G. J. (2010). Migration and climate change: Examining thresholds of change to guide effective adaptation decision-making. Population and Environment, 32(2–3), 238–262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baumhardt, L. R. (2008). Dust bowl era. In S. W. Timble (Ed.), Encyclopedia of water science (pp. 246–250). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beauchemin, C., & Schoumaker, B. (2005). Migration to cities in Burkina Faso: Does the level of development in sending areas matter? World Development, 33(7), 1129–1152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bencivenga, V. R., & Smith, B. D. (1997). Unemployment, migration, and growth. Journal of Political Economy, 105(3), 582–608.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bilsborrow, R. E. (1992). Population growth, internal migration and environmental degradation in rural areas of developing countries. European Journal of Population-Revue Europeenne De Demographie, 8(2), 125–148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bilsborrow, R. E. (2002). Migration, population change and the rural environment. ECSP Report. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Environmental Change and Security Project, (8): 69–94.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, N., Chiapello, I., Di Lernia, S., Drake, N., Legrand, M., Moulin, C., & Prospero, J. (2005). The climate-environment-society nexus in the Sahara from prehistoric times to the present day. The Journal of North African Studies, 10(3–4), 253–292.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, S. K., & Bean, F. D. (2006). International migration. In D. Posten & M. Micklin (Eds.), Handbook of population (pp. 347–382). New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brulle, R. J., & Pellow, D. N. (2006). Environmental justice: Human health and environmental inequalities. Annual Review of Public Health, 27, 103–124.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bryant, B. I., & Mohai, P. (1992). Race and the incidence of environmental hazards. Boulder: Westview Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burns, T. J., Kick, E. L., Murray, D. A., & Murray, D. A. (1994). Demography, development and deforestation in a world-system perspective. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 35(3), 221–239.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burns, T. J., Kick, E. L., & Davis, B. L. (2003). Theorizing and rethinking linkages between the natural environment and the modern world-system: Deforestation in the late 20th century. Journal of World-Systems Research, 9, 357–392.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cafaro, P., & Staples, W. (2009). The environmental argument for reducing immigration into the United States. Environmental Ethics, 31, 5–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carney, D., Drinkwater, M., Rusinow, T., Neefjes, K., Wanmali, S., & Singh, N. (1999). Livelihoods approaches compared. London: Department for International Development.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carr, E. R. (2005). Placing the environment in migration: Environment, economy, and power in Ghana’s Central Region. Environment and Planning A, 37(5), 925–946.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carr, D. (2009). Population and deforestation: Why rural migration matters. Progress in Human Geography, 33(3), 355–378.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cassels, S., Curran, S. R., & Kramer, R. (2005). Do migrants degrade coastal environments? Migration, natural resource extraction and poverty in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Human Ecology, 33(3), 329–363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crowder, K., & Downey, L. (2010). Interneighborhood migration, race, and environmental hazards: Modeling microlevel processes of environmental inequality. American Journal of Sociology, 115(4), 1110–1149.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crowder, K., & South, S. J. (2005). Race, class, and changing patterns of migration between poor and nonpoor neighborhoods. American Journal of Sociology, 110(6), 1715–1763.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Curtis, K. J., & Schneider, A. (2011). Understanding the demographic implications of climate change: Estimates of localized population predictions under future scenarios of sea-level rise. Population and Environment, 33, 28–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dannecker, P. (2009). Migrant visions of development: A gendered approach. Population Space and Place, 15(2), 119–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davis, J., & Lopez-Carr, D. (2010). The effects of migrant remittances on population-environment dynamics in migrant origin areas: international migration, fertility, and consumption in highland Guatemala. Population and Environment, 32(2–3), 216–237.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Castro, M. C., Monte-Mór, R. L., Sawyer, D. O., & Singer, B. H. (2006). Malaria risk on the Amazon frontier. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(7), 2452–2457.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • De Haas, H. (2001). Migration and agricultural transformations in the oases of Morocco and Tunisia. Utrecht: KNAG.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Haas, H. (2006). Migration, remittances and regional development in Southern Morocco. Geoforum, 37(4), 565–580.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Jong, G. F., & Fawcett, J. (1981). Motivations for migration: An assessment and a value-expectancy research model. In G. F. De Jong & R. W. Gardner (Eds.), Migration decision making: Multidisciplinary approaches to microlevel studies in developed and developing countries (pp. 13–58). New York: Pergamon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Jong, W., Tuck-Po, L., & Ken-ichi, A. (2006). Migration and the social ecology of tropical forests. In W. de Jong, L. T. Po, & A. Ken-ichi (Eds.), The social ecology of tropical forests: Migration, populations and frontiers (pp. 1–24). Kyoto: Kyoto University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Sherbinin, A., VanWey, L. K., McSweeney, K., Aggarwal, R., Barbieri, A., Henry, S., Hunter, L. M., Twine, W., & Walker, R. (2008). Rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Global Environmental Change, 18, 38–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dietz, T., & Rosa, E. A. (1994). Rethinking the environmental impacts of population, affluence and technology. Human Ecology Review, 1, 277–300.

    Google Scholar 

  • Doevenspeck, M. (2011). The thin line between choice and flight: Environment and migration in rural Benin. International Migration, 49(S1), 50–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dun, O. (2011). Migration and displacement triggered by floods in the Mekong Delta. International Migration, 49(S1), 200–223.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ehrhardt-Martinez, K., Crenshaw, E. M., & Jenkins, J. C. (2002). Deforestation and the environmental Kuznets curve: A cross-national investigation of intervening mechanisms. Social Science Quarterly, 83(1), 226–243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ellen, I. G., & O’Regan, K. M. (2011). How low income neighborhoods change: Entry, exit, and enhancement. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 41(2), 89–97.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Entwisle, B. (2007). Putting people into place. Demography, 44(4), 687–703.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Evans, T. P., & Kelley, H. (2008). Assessing the transition from deforestation to forest regrowth with an agent-based model of land cover change for south-central Indiana (USA). Geoforum, 39(2), 819–832.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fearnside, P. M. (2008). Will urbanization cause deforested areas to be abandoned in Brazilian Amazonia? Environmental Conservation, 35(3), 197–199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Feng, S. Z., Krueger, A. B., & Oppenheimer, M. (2010). Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico-US cross-border migration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(32), 14257–14262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Findley, S. E. (1994). Does drought increase migration – A study of migration from rural Mali during the 1983–1985 drought. International Migration Review, 28(3), 539–553.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frey, W. H., Singer, A., & Park, D. (2007). Resettling New Orleans: The first full picture from the census. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, Metropolitan Policy Program.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fussell, E., Sastry, N., & VanLandingham, M. (2010). Race, socioeconomic status, and return migration to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. Population and Environment, 31(1–3), 20–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gibbons, S. J. A., & Nicholls, R. J. (2006). Island abandonment and sea-level rise: An historical analog from the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions, 16(1), 40–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gidwani, V., & Sivaramakrishnan, K. (2003). Circular migration and the spaces of cultural assertion. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 93(1), 186–213.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gila, O. A., Zaratiegui, A. U., & De Maturana Dieguez, V. L. (2011). Western Sahara: Migration, exile and environment. International Migration, 49(S1), 146–163.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gilbert, G., & McLeman, R. (2010). Household access to capital and its effects on drought adaptation and migration: A case study of rural Alberta in the 1930s. Population and Environment, 32(1), 3–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Godsil, R. D. (1991). Remedying environmental racism. Michigan Law Review, 90, 394–427.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gray, C. L. (2009). Rural out-migration and smallholder agriculture in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. Population and Environment, 30(4–5), 193–217.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gray, C. L. (2010). Gender, natural capital, and migration in the southern Ecuadorian Andes. Environment and Planning, 42, 678–696.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gregory, J. N. (1989). American exodus: The dust bowl migration and Okie Culture in California. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Groen, J. A., & Polivka, A. E. (2010). Determinants of return migration and changes in affected areas. Demography, 47(4), 821–844.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gutmann, M. P., & Field, V. (2010). Katrina in historical context: Environment and migration in the US. Population and Environment, 31(1–3), 3–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gutmann, M. P., Deane, G. D., Lauster, N., & Peri, A. (2005). Two population-environment regimes in the great plains of the United States, 1930–1990. Population and Environment, 27(2), 191–225.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haas, J. E., Trainer, P. B., Bowden, M. J., & Bolin, R. (1977). Reconstruction issues in perspective. In E. Haas, R. W. Kates, & M. J. Bowden (Eds.), Reconstruction following disaster (pp. 25–68). Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hartmann, B. (2010). Rethinking climate refugees and climate conflict: Rhetoric, reality and the politics of policy discourse. Journal of International Development, 22, 233–246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Henry, S., Schoumaker, B., & Beauchemin, C. (2004). The impact of rainfall on the first out-migration: A multi-level event-history analysis in Burkina Faso. Population and Environment, 25(5), 423–460.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hori, M., & Schafer, M. J. (2010). Social costs of displacement in Louisiana after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Population and Environment, 31(1–3), 64–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hugo, G. (1996). Environmental concerns and international migration. International Migration Review, 30(1), 105–131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hunter, L. M. (1998). The association between environmental risk and internal migration flows. Population and Environment, 19(3), 247–277.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hunter, L. M. (2005). Migration and environmental hazards. Population and Environment, 26(4), 273–302.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hunter, L. M., & David, E. (2011). Climate change and migration: Considering gender dimensions. In E. Piguet, P. de Guchteneire, & A. Pecoud (Eds.), Climate change and migration. Cambridge: UNESCO Publishing and Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hunter, L. M., White, M. J., Little, J. S., & Sutton, J. (2003). Environmental risk, migration, and equity. Population and Environment, 25(1), 23–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hunter, L. M., Boardman, J. D., & Onge, J. M. S. (2005). The association between natural amenities, rural population growth, and long-term residents’ economic well-being. Rural Sociology, 70(4), 452–469.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hur, M., Nasar, J. L., & Chun, B. (2010). Neighborhood satisfaction, physical and perceived naturalness and openness. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(1), 52–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, T., Illsley, B., Curry, J., & Rapaport, E. (2008). Amenity migration and sustainable development in remote resource-based communities: Lessons from northern British Columbia. International Journal of Society Systems Science, 1(1), 26–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jaeger, J., Fruehmann, J., Gruenberger, S., & Vag, A. (2009). EACH-FOR synthesis report.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, L. S. (2009). Environment, security, and environmental refugees. Journal of Animal and Environmental Law, 1, 222–248.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jokisch, B. D. (2002). Migration and agricultural change: The case of smallholder agriculture in highland Ecuador. Human Ecology, 30(4), 523–550.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jonsson, G. (2010). The environmental factor in migration dynamics – A review of African case studies. Oxford: International Migration Institute, James Martin 21st Century School, University of Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jorgenson, A. K., & Burns, T. J. (2007). Effects of rural and urban population dynamics and national development on deforestation in less-developed countries, 1990–2000. Sociological Inquiry, 77(3), 460–482.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Julca, A. (2011). Multidimensional re-creation of vulnerabilities and potential for resilience in international migration. International Migration, 49(S1), 30–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Julich, S. (2011). Drought triggered temporary migration in an East Indian Village. International Migration, 49(S1), 189–199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kavzoglu, T. (2008). Determination of environmental degradation due to urbanization and industrialization in Gebze, Turkey. Environmental Engineering Science, 25(3), 429–438.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kweon, B. S., Ellis, C. D., Leiva, P. I., & Rogers, G. O. (2010). Landscape components, land use and neighborhood satisfaction. Environment and Planning B, 37, 500–517.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Larson, A., Bell, M., & Young, A. F. (2004). Clarifying the relationships between health and residential mobility. Social Science & Medicine, 59(10), 2149–2160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lawson, V. A. (1998). Hierarchical households and gendered migration in Latin America: Feminist extensions to migration research. Progress in Human Geography, 22, 39–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lein, H. (2000). Hazards and ‘forced’ migration in Bangladesh. Norwegian Journal of Geography, 54, 122–127.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lopez, E., Bocco, G., Mendoza, M., Velazquez, A., & Aguirre-Rivera, R. J. (2006). Peasant emigration and land-use change at the watershed level: A GIS-based approach in Central Mexico. Agricultural Systems, 90, 62–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lori, M. H., & David, E. (2011). Climate change and migration: Considering gender dimensions. In P. Etienne, P. de Guchteneire, & P. Antoine (Eds.), Invited chapter in climate change and migration. New York: UNESCO Publishing/Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luke, D. A. (2004). Multilevel modeling Sage university papers series: Quantitative applications in the social sciences 143. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marchiori, L., & Schumacher, I. (2011). When nature rebels: International migration, climate change, and inequality. Journal of Population Economics, 24(2), 569–600.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Markides, K. S., & Eschbach, K. (2011). Hispanic paradox in adult mortality in the United States. In Rogers, R. G., & Crimmins, E. M. (Eds.), International handbook of adult mortality (International handbooks of population, Vol. 2, Part 2, pp. 227–240). Dordrecht/New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Massey, D. S., Axinn, W. G., & Ghimire, D. J. (2010). Environmental change and out-migration: Evidence from Nepal. Population and Environment, 32(2–3), 109–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McKay, D. (2005). Reading remittance landscapes: Female migration and agricultural transition in the Philippines. Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography, 105(1), 89–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McLeman, R. & Hunter, L. M. (2010, March/April). Migration in the context of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change: Insights from analogues. In Climate Change. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews, 1(2). http://wires.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WiresJournal/wisId-WCC.html

  • Mena, C. F., Walsh, S. J., Frizzelle, B. G., Yao, X. Z., & Malanson, G. P. (2011). Land use change on household farms in the Ecuadorian Amazon design and implementation of an agent-based model. Applied Geography, 31(1), 210–222.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meze-Hausken, E. (2000). Migration caused by climate change: How vulnerable are people in dryland areas. Migration and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 5(4), 379–406.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, B. W., Breckheimer, I., McCleary, A. L., Guzman-Ramirez, L., Caplow, S. C., Jones-Smith, J. C., & Walsh, S. J. (2010). Using stylized agent-based models for population-environment research: A case study from the Galapagos Islands. Population and Environment, 31(6), 401–426.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moran-Taylor, M. J., & Taylor, M. J. (2010). Land and lea: Linking transnational migration, natural resources, and the environment in Guatemala. Population and Environment, 32(2–3), 198–215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mortreux, C., & Barnett, J. (2009). Climate change, migration and adaptation in Funafuti, Tuvalu. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions, 19(1), 105–112.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mostafa, M. M. (2010). A Bayesian approach to analyzing the ecological footprint of 140 nations. Ecological Indicators, 10(4), 808–817.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muller, D., & Sikor, T. (2006). Effects of postsocialist reforms on land cover and land sue in South-Eastern Albania. Applied Geography, 26, 175–191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • NRC. (1999). The human dimension of global environmental change. In Global environmental change: Research pathways for the next decade (pp. 293–376). New York: National Academy Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oh, J. H. (2003). Social bonds and the migration intentions of elderly urban residents: The mediating effect of residential satisfaction. Population Research and Policy Review, 22(2), 127–146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olsson, L., Eklundh, L., & Ardo, J. (2005). A recent greening of the Sahel – Trends, patterns and potential causes. Journal of Arid Environments, 63(3), 556–566.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Opeskin, B., & MacDermott, T. (2009). Resources, population and migration in the Pacific: Connecting islands and rim. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 50(3), 353–373.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Sullivan, D. (2008). Geographical information science: Agent-based models. Progress in Human Geography, 32(4), 541–550.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parry, L., Day, B., Amaral, S., & Peres, C. A. (2010). Drivers of rural exodus from Amazonian headwaters. Population and Environment, 32(2–3), 137–176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Petersen, W. (1958). A general typology of migration. American Sociological Review, 256–266.

    Google Scholar 

  • Piguet, E. (2010). Linking climate change, environmental degradation, and migration: A methodological overview. Climate Change, 1(4), 517–524.

    Google Scholar 

  • Population Reference Bureau (PRB). (2011). PRB’s population handbook (A. Haupt, T. T. Kane, & C. Haub, Eds.). Washington, DC: PRB.

    Google Scholar 

  • Preston, D., Macklin, M., & Warburton, J. (1997). Fewer people, less erosion: The twentieth century in southern Bolivia. Geographical Journal, 163, 198–205.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Qin, H. (2010). Rural-to-urban labor migration, household livelihoods, and the rural environment in Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China. Human Ecology, 38(5), 675–690.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reichert, J. S. (1981). The migrant syndrome: Seasonal US wage labor and rural development in central Mexico. Human Organization, 40(1), 56–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Renalds, A., Smith, T. H., & Hale, P. J. (2010). A systematic review of built environment and health. Family & Community Health, 33(1), 68–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Renaud, F. G., Dun, O., Warner, K., & Bogardi, J. (2011). Decision framework for enivronmentally induced migration. International Migration, 49(S1), 5–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reuveny, R. (2007). Climate change-induced migration and violent conflict. Political Geography, 26(6), 656–673.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reuveny, R., & Moore, W. H. (2009). Does environmental degradation influence migration? Emigration to developed countries in the late 1980s and 1990s. Social Science Quarterly, 90(3), 461–479.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robbins, P. (2004). Political ecology: A critical introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robson, J. P., & Nayak, P. K. (2010). Rural out-migration and resource-dependent communities in Mexico and India. Population and Environment, 32(2–3), 263–284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rudel, T. K., Coomes, O. T., Moran, E., Achard, F., Angelsen, A., Xu, J. C., & Lambin, E. (2005). Forest transitions: Towards a global understanding of land use change. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions, 15(1), 23–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanderson, M. R. (2009). Globalization and the environment: Implications for human migration. Human Ecology Review, 16(1), 93–102.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sastry, N. (2009). Displaced New Orleans residents in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: Results from a pilot survey. Organization & Environment, 22(4), 395–409.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scheffran, J., & Battaglini, A. (2011). Climate and conflicts: The security risks of global warming. Regional Environmental Change, 11, S27–S39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shen, S., & Gemenne, F. (2011). Contrasted views on environmental change and migration: The case of Tuvaluan migration to New Zealand. International Migration, 49(s1), e224–e242.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Silvey, R., & Lawson, V. (1999). Placing the migrant. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 89(1), 121–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • South, S. J., Pais, J., & Crowder, K. (2011). Metropolitan influences on migration into poor and nonpoor neighborhoods. Social Science Research, 40(2), 950–964.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Speare, A., Jr. (1974). Residential satisfaction as an intervening variable in residential mobility. Demography, 11(2), 173–188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Squalli, J. (2009). Immigration and environmental emissions: A US county-level analysis. Population and Environment, 30(6), 247–260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stal, M. (2011). Flooding and relocation: The Zambezi River Valley in Mozambique. International Migration, 49(S1), 125–144.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Starrs, P. F., & Wright, J. B. (1995). Great basin growth and the withering of California’s Pacific idyll. Geographical Review, 85, 417–435.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stringfield, J. D. (2010). Higher ground: An exploratory analysis of characteristics affecting returning populations after Hurricane Katrina. Population and Environment, 31(1–3), 43–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Suhrke, A. (1994). Environmental degradation and population flows. Journal of International Affairs, 47(2), 473–496.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, M. J., Moran-Taylor, M. J., & Ruiz, D. R. (2006). Land, ethnic, and gender change: Transnational migration and its effects on Guatemalan lives and landscapes. Geoforum, 37(1), 41–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Terry, G. (2009). No climate justice without gender justice: An overview of the issues. Gender and Development, 17(1), 5–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uejio, C. K., Wilhelmi, O. V., Golden, J. S., Mills, D. M., Gulino, S. P., & Samenow, J. P. (2011). Intra-urban societal vulnerability to extreme heat: The role of heat exposure and the built environment, socioeconomics, and neighborhood stability. Health & Place, 17(2), 498–507.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • UNHCR. (2009: 6). Even so, such frameworks neglect consideration of internal population.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van der Geest, K. (2011). North-South migration in Ghana: What role for the environment? International Migration, 49(S1), 69–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • VanWey, L. (2003). Land ownership as a determinant of temporary migration in Nang Rong, Thailand. European Journal of Population, 19(2), 121–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vigotti, M. A., Muggeo, V. M. R., & Cusimano, R. (2006). The effect of birthplace on heat tolerance and mortality in Milan, Italy, 1980–1989. International Journal of Biometeorology, 50(6), 335–341.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weden, M. M., Bird, C. E., Escarce, J. J., & Lurie, N. (2011). Neighborhood archetypes for population health research: Is there no place like home? Health & Place, 17(1), 289–299.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wolpert, J. (1966). Migration as an adjustment to environmental stress. Journal of Social Issues, 22(4), 92–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wright, S. J., & Muller‐Landau, H. C. (2006). The future of tropical forest species. Biotropica, 38(3), 287–301.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yabiku, S. T., Glick, J. E., Wentz, E. A., Haas, S. A., & Zhu, L. (2009). Migration, health, and environment in the desert southwest. Population and Environment, 30(4–5), 131–158.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yin, J., Yin, Z. E., Zhong, H. D., Xu, S. Y., Hu, X. M., Wang, J., & Wu, J. P. (2011). Monitoring urban expansion and land use/land cover changes of Shanghai metropolitan area during the transitional economy (1979–2009) in China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 177(1–4), 609–621.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zaman, M. Q. (1991). The displaced poor and resettlement policies in Bangladesh. Disasters, 15(2), 117–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerer, K. S. (1993). Soil erosion and labor shortages in the Andes with special references to Bolivia, 1953–91 – Implications for conservation with development. World Development, 21(10), 1659–1675.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lori M. Hunter .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Hunter, L.M., Nawrotzki, R. (2016). Migration and the Environment. In: White, M. (eds) International Handbook of Migration and Population Distribution. International Handbooks of Population, vol 6. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-7282-2_21

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-7282-2_21

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-94-017-7281-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-017-7282-2

  • eBook Packages: Social SciencesSocial Sciences (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics