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Bioerosion and Coral Reef Growth: A Dynamic Balance

Chapter

Abstract

Bioerosion, involving the weakening and breakdown of calcareous coral reef structures, is due to the chemical and mechanical activities of numerous and diverse biotic agents. These range in size from minute, primarily intra-skeletal organisms, the microborers (e.g., algae, fungi, bacteria) to larger and often externally-visible macroboring invertebrate (e.g., sponges, polychaete worms, sipunculans, molluscs, crustaceans, echinoids) and fish (e.g., parrotfishes, acanthurids, pufferfishes) species. Constructive coral reef growth and destructive bioerosive processes are often in close balance. Dead corals are generally subject to higher rates of bioerosion than living corals, therefore, bioerosion and reef degradation can result from disturbances that cause coral mortality, such as sedimentation, eutrophication, pollution, temperature extremes, predation, and coral diseases. The effects of intensive coral reef bioerosion, involving El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Acanthaster predation, watershed alterations, and over-fishing, are re-examined after ~20 years (early 1990s–2010). We review the evidence showing that the biologically-mediated dissolution of calcium carbonate structures by endolithic algae and clionaid sponges will be accelerated with ocean acidification. The CaCO3 budget dynamics of Caribbean and eastern tropical Pacific reefs is reviewed and provides sobering case studies on the current state of coral reefs and their future in a high-CO2 world.

Keywords

Rates Excavating Degradation Acidification Microborer 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks are due Charles G Messing, Klaus Rützler, Paul L Jokiel and other referenced workers for the illustrations in this chapter. Michael J Risk and Charles Birkeland are acknowledged for helping with various literature leads, and Ann Campbell for her diligence in providing numerous published sources. Updating of the condition of the Coconut Island fringing reef was made possible by C Birkeland, PL Jokiel, John Stimson, and Nadiera Sukhraj. Joshua Levy kindly assisted in up-dating Fig. 4.12 and Michael P. C. Fuller with page proofing. Research reported by PW Glynn was supported by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, National Science Foundation (Biological Oceanography Program), and the National Geographic Society. DP Manzello has received support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration via the Coral Reef Conservation and Ocean Acidification Programs.

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric ScienceUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems DivisionAtlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationMiamiUSA

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