Advertisement

Reef Biology and Geology – Not Just a Matter of Scale

Chapter

Abstract

The geological distribution and developmental history of coral reefs have been largely controlled by physical factors such as plate tectonics, sea-level changes, wave energy, salinity, light, temperature, nutrients, sediment, and antecedent topography. Although the geological and biological patterns have generally been consistent over the past 12,000 years, sub-millennial intervals of variation remind us that long-term patterns provide only part of the picture. Looking forward, changes in seawater temperature, storm intensity, aragonite saturation state and pH may bring a major shift in the balance between carbonate production, destruction and export. While rising sea level alone will probably not significantly change reef communities or over-top low reef islands, even small increases of water depth will have disproportionate effects on the wave energy passing over the reef crest. Moreover, the impacts of increasing storminess will rival declining coral cover as a major control over the carbonate budget of coral reefs in the coming century. Understanding what is to come will require a perspective that is impossible from any single discipline.

Keywords

Carbonate budget Development Holocene Accretion Zonation 

References

  1. Adey WH, Burke RB (1977) Holocene bioherms of the Lesser Antilles – geologic control of development. In: Frost SH, Weiss MP, Saunders JB (eds) Reefs and related carbonates – ecology and sedimentology. Amer Assoc Petr Geol Bull Spec Publ 4, Tulsa, pp 67–82Google Scholar
  2. Adey WH, Macintyre IG, Stuckenrath R, Dill RF (1977) Relict barrier reef system off St. Croix: its implications with respect to late Cenozoic coral reef development in the western Atlantic. Proc 3rd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:15–21Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez-Filip L, Dulvy NK, Gill JA, Côté IM, Watkinson AR (2009) Flattening of Caribbean coral reefs: region-wide declines in architectural complexity. Proc R Soc 276:3019–3025Google Scholar
  4. Aronson R, Precht W (2001a) Applied paleoecology and the crisis on Caribbean coral reefs. Palaios 16:195–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aronson RB, Precht WF (2001b) White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia 460:25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanchon P (2011) Back-stepping. In: Hopley D (ed) Encyclopedia of modern coral reefs. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bosscher H, Schlager W (1992) Computer simulation of reef growth. Sedimentology 39:503–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruckner AW, Hill RL (2009) Ten years of change to coral communities off Mona and Desecheo Islands, Puerto Rico, from disease and bleaching. Dis Aquat Organ 87:19–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buddemeier RW, Maragos JE, Knutson DW (1974) Radiographic studies of reef coral exoskeletons: rates and patterns of coral growth. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 14:179–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burke L, Reytar K, Spalding M, Perry A (2011) Reefs at risk revisited. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, 112 pGoogle Scholar
  11. Carpenter KE, Abrar M, Aeby G, Aronson RB, Banks S, Bruckner A, Chiriboga A, Cortes J, Delbeen JC, Devantier J, Edgar GJ, Edwards AJ, Fenner D, Guzman HM, Hoeksema BW, Hodgeson G, Johan O, Licuanan WY, Livingstone SR, Lovell ER, Moore JA, Obura DO, Ochavillo D, Polidoro BA, Precht WF, Quibilan MC, Robotan C, Richards ZT, Rogers AD, Sanciangco J, Sheppard A, Sheppard C, Smith J, Stuart S, Turak E, Veron JE, Wallace C, Weil E, Wood E (2008) One-third of reef-building corals face elevated extinction risks from climate change and local impacts. Science 321:560–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Church JA, White NJ (2011) Sea-level rise from the late 19th to the early 21st century. Surv Geophys 32:585–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cortes J, Risk M (1985) Are reefs under siltation stress: Cahuita, Costa Rica. Bull Mar Sci 36:339–356Google Scholar
  14. Daly RA (1915) The glacial-control theory of coral reefs. Proc Am Acad Arts Sci 51:155–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Darwin CR (1842) The structure and distribution of coral reefs. Smith, Elder and Co, London, 207pGoogle Scholar
  16. Darwin C (1913) Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the countries visited during the voyage round the world of H.M.S. Beagle. John Murray, London, p 538Google Scholar
  17. Davi WM (1923) The marginal belts of the coral seas. Proc Natl Acad Sci 9:292–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davies PJ, Hopley D (1983) Growth fabrics and growth rates of Holocene reefs in the Great Barrier Reef. Bur Min Res J Austr Geol Geophys 8:237–251Google Scholar
  19. Davies PJ, Symonds PA, Feary DA, Pigram CJ (1987) Horizontal plate motion: a key allocyclic factor in the evolution of the Great Barrier Reef. Science 238:1697–1700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davies PJ, Feary DA, Kershaw AP, Pigram CJ, Symonds PA, de Deckker P (1991) The evolution of the carbonate platforms of Northeast Australia. In: Williams MA (ed) Cainozoic in Australia: a re-appraisal of the evidence, vol 18. Geol Soc Australia Spec Pub, Sydney, pp 44–78Google Scholar
  21. De’ath G, Fabricius KE, Sweatman H, Puotinen M (2012) The 27–year decline of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:17995–17999PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DiCaprio MRD, Müller RD, Gurnis M (2010) A dynamic process for drowning carbonate reefs on the northeastern Australian margin. Geology 38:11–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Doney SC, Fabry JF, Feely RA, Kleypas JA (2009) Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem. Mar Sci 1:169–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dubois R, Towle EL (1985) Coral harvesting and mining management practices. In: Clarke JT (ed) Coasts-coastal resource management development case studies. Research Planning Institute, Columbia SC, Coast Publ, vol 3. pp 203–283Google Scholar
  25. Dullo W-C (2005) Coral growth and reef growth: a brief review. Coral Reefs 51:33–48Google Scholar
  26. Dunham RJ (1970) Stratigraphic reefs versus ecologic reefs. Am Assoc Petr Geol Bull 54:1931–1932Google Scholar
  27. Dustan P (1975) Growth and form in the reef-building coral Montastrea annularis. Mar Biol 33:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Emiliani C (1966) Isotopic paleotemperatures. Science 154:851–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Endean R (1973) Population explosions of Acanthaster planci and associated destruction of hermatypic corals in the Indo-West Pacific region. In: Jones OA, Endean R (eds) Biology and geology of coral reefs, vol 2. Academic, London, pp 389–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Estep A, Erickson T, Hubbard DK (2008) A comparison of rates and styles of bioerosion with varying sedimentation: holocene reefs in the western Dominican Republic versus modern reefs off St. Croix, USVI 11th Intl Coral Reef Symp Abstracts and Program, p 261Google Scholar
  31. Fagerstrom JA (1987) The evolution of reef communities. Wiley, New York, 600 pGoogle Scholar
  32. Fairbanks RG (1989) A 17,000-year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep-ocean circulation. Nature 342:637–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fairbridge R, Teichert C (1948) The low isles of the Great Barrier Reefs: a new analysis. Geogr J 3:67–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Frost SH (1977) Cenozoic reef systems of Caribbean – prospects for paleoecologic synthesis. In: Frost SH, Weiss MP, Saunders JB (eds) Reefs and related carbonates – ecology and sedimentology, Bull Studies in Geology No. 4. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, pp 93–110Google Scholar
  35. Gardner TA, Coté IM, Gill JA, Grant A, Watkinson AR (2003) Long-term region-wide declines in Caribbean corals. Science 301:958–960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gasse F (2000) Hydrological changes in the African tropics since the last glacial maximum. Quat Sci Rev 19:189–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Geister J (1977) The influence of wave exposure on the ecological zonation of Caribbean reefs. Proc 3rd Int Coral Reef Symp 1:23–29Google Scholar
  38. Gischler E (2008) Accretion patterns in Holocene tropical coral reefs: do massive coral reefs in deeper water with slowly growing corals accrete faster than shallower branched corals with rapidly growing corals? Int J Earth Sci 97:851–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gladfelter W (1982) White band disease in Acropora palmata: implications for the structure and function of shallow reefs. Bull Mar Sci 32:639–643Google Scholar
  40. Glynn PW (1984) Widespread coral mortality and the 1982–1983 El Niño warming event. Environ Conserv 11:133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Glynn PJ, Stewart RH (1973) Distribution of coral reefs in the Pearl Islands (Gulf of Panama) in relation to thermal conditions. Limnol Oceanogr 18:367–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Grauss R, Macintyre IG (1982) Variations in growth forms of the reef coral Montastrea annularis: a quantitative evaluation of growth response to light distribution under computer simulation. In: Rutzler K, Macintyre IG (eds) The Atlantic barrier reef ecosystem at Carrier Bow Cay, Belize I: structure and communities. Smithsonian Institution Contrib Mar Sci 12:441–464, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  43. Grauss RB, Chamberlain JA, Boker A (1984) Structural modifications of corals in relation to waves and currents. In: Frost SH, Weis MP, Saunders JB (eds) Reefs and related carbonates – ecology and sedimentology. Am Assoc Petr Geol Bull Stud Geol 4:135–153, Tulsa OKGoogle Scholar
  44. Grauss R, Macintyre I (1998) Global warming and the future of Caribbean coral reefs. Carbonates Evaporites 13:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Greenstein BJ (1999) Using the fossil record to approach modern ecological problems: a case study for coral reefs. Am Paleontol 7:2–4Google Scholar
  46. Grigg RW (1982) Darwin Point: a threshold for atoll formation. Coral Reefs 1:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grigg RW (2000) Coral reef evolution: short term instability versus evolutionary stasis. In: Integrated coastal zone management, 2nd edn. Univ. of Hawaii, Dept. of Oceanography, Honolulu, pp 65–68Google Scholar
  48. Hajek A (2001) Pascal’s wager. In: Zalta EN (ed) The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Stanford University Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford CAGoogle Scholar
  49. Hallock P (1988) The role of nutrient availability in bioerosion: consequences to carbonate buildups. Paleogogr Paleoclimatol Paleoecol 63:275–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Haq BU, Hardenbol J, Vail PR (1987) Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. Science 235:1156–1167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Harvell C, Kim K, Burkholder JM, Colwell RR, Epstein PR, Grimes DJ, Hofmann EE, Lipp EK, Osterhaus ADME, Overstreet RM, Porter JW, Smith GW, Vasta GR (1999) Emerging marine diseases – climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science 285:1505–1510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harvell CD, Aronson R, Baron N, Connell J et al (2004) The rising tide of ocean diseases: unsolved problems and research priorities. Front Ecol Environ 2:375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Heckel PH (1974) Carbonate buildups in the geologic record: a review. In: Laporte LF (ed) Reefs in time and space. SEPM Spec Publ, Tulsa OK, vol 18, pp 90–154Google Scholar
  54. Hine AC, Neumann AC (1977) Shallow carbonate bank margin growth and structure, Little Bahama Bank. Am Assoc Petr Geol Bull 61:376–406Google Scholar
  55. Hodell DA, Curtis JH, Jones GA, Higuera-Gundy A, Brenner M, Binford MW, Dorsey KT (1991) Reconstruction of Caribbean climate change over the past 10,500 years. Nature 352:790–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hoegh-Guldberg O, Mumby PJ, Hooten AJ, Steneck RS, Greenfield P, Gomex E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards AJ, Caldeira K, Eakin CM, Iglesias-Prieto R, Muthiga N, Bredbury RH, Dubi A, Hatziolos ME (2007) Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science 318:1737–1742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hubbard DK (1986) Sedimentation as a control of reef development. Coral Reefs 5:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hubbard DK (1987) A general review of sedimentation as it relates to environmental stress in the Virgin Islands Biosphere Reserve and the eastern Caribbean in general. Biosphere Reserve Research Report 20, Virgin Islands National Park, St. John USVI, 42pGoogle Scholar
  59. Hubbard DK (1992) Hurricane-induced sediment transport in open-shelf tropical systems – an example from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. J Sediment Petrol 62:946–960Google Scholar
  60. Hubbard DK (2009) Depth-related and species-related patterns of Holocene reef accretion in the Caribbean and western Atlantic: a critical assessment of existing models. In: Swart PK, Eberli G, McKenzie J (eds) Perspectives in carbonate geology. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  61. Hubbard DK (2011) Reefs through the looking glass. In: Stanley DG (ed) Corals and reefs: crisis, collapse and change, vol 17, Paleontological Society papers. Paleontological Society, Boulder, pp 95–110Google Scholar
  62. Hubbard DK (2014) Holocene accretion rates and styles for Caribbean coral reefs: lessons for the past and future. In: Verwer K, Playton TE, Harris PM (eds) Deposits, architecture and controls of carbonate margin, slope and basinal settings. SEPM Spec. Publ, vol 105, pp 264–281, Tulsa OKGoogle Scholar
  63. Hubbard DK, Garcia M (2003) The corals and coral reefs of Easter Island – a preliminary look. In: Loret J, Tanacredi JT (eds) Easter Island. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 53–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hubbard JAEB, Pocock Y (1974) Sediment rejection by recent scleractinian corals: a key to paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Geol Rundsch 61:598–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hubbard DK, Scaturo D (1985) Growth rates of seven scleractinean corals from Cane Bay and Salt River, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Bull Mar Sci 36:325–338Google Scholar
  66. Hubbard DK, Burke RB, Gill IP (1986) Styles of reef accretion along a steep, shelf-edge reef, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. J Sediment Petrol 56:848–861Google Scholar
  67. Hubbard DK, Miller AI, Scaturo D (1990) Production and cycling of calcium carbonate in a shelf-edge reef system (St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands): applications to the nature of reef systems in the fossil record. J Sediment Petrol 60:335–360Google Scholar
  68. Hubbard DK, Bythell JC, Gladfelter EH (1994) Comparison of biological and geological perspectives of coral-reef community structure at Buck Island, U.S. Virgin Islands. In: Proceedings of colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs; health, hazards and history. Miami, pp 201–207Google Scholar
  69. Hubbard DK, Gill IP, Burke RB, Morelock J (1997) Holocene reef backstepping – southwestern Puerto Rico Shelf. Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Symp 2:1779–1784Google Scholar
  70. Hubbard DK, Burke RB, Gill IP (1998) Where’s the reef: the role of framework in the Holocene. Carbonates Evaporites 13:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hubbard DK, Gill IP, Burke RB (2000) Caribbean-wide loss of A. palmata 7,000 yr ago: sea-level change, stress, or business as usual? Abstracts of 9th international coral reef symposium, p 57Google Scholar
  72. Hubbard DK, Zankl H, Van Heerden I, Gill IP (2005) Holocene reef development along the Northeastern St. Croix Shelf, Buck Island, U.S. Virgin Islands. J Sediment Res 75:97–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hubbard DK, Gill IP, Burke RB (2013) Holocene reef building on Eastern St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: Lang Bank revisited. Coral Reefs. doi: 10.1007/s00338-013-1041-1 Google Scholar
  74. Hubbard D, Gischler E, Davies P, Montaggioni L, Camoin G, Dullo W-C, Storlazzi C, Field M, Fletcher C, Grossman E, Sheppard C, Lescinsky H, Fenner D, McManus J, Scheffers S (2014) Island outlook: warm and swampy. Science 345:1461–1462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hughes Y (1994) Catastrophes, phase shifts, and large-scale degradation of a Caribbean coral reef. Science 265:1547–1531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hughes TP, Baird AH, Bellwood DR, Card M, Connolly SR, Folke C, Grosberg R, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Jackso JBC, Kleypas J, Lough JM, Marshall P, Nystrom M, Palumbi SR, Pandolfi JM, Rosen B, Roughgarden J (2003) Climate change, human impacts and the resilience of coral reefs. Science 301:929–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Isdale PJ (1984) Geographical patterns in coral growth rates on the Great Barrier Reeg. In: Baker JT, Carter RM, Sammarco PW, Stark KP (eds) Proceedings of the Great Barrier Reef Conference, Townsvill, Australia, pp 327–330Google Scholar
  78. Jackson JBC (1991) Adaptation and diversity of reef corals. Bioscience 41:745–482Google Scholar
  79. Jackson JBC (1992) Pleistocene perspectives on coral reef community structure. Am Zool 32:719–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jackson JBC (1997) Reefs since Columbus. Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Symp 1:97–106Google Scholar
  81. Johannes RE (1975) Pollution and degradation of coral reef communities. In: Ferguson Wood EJ, Johanes RE (eds) Tropical marine pollution, vol 12, Elsevier oceanography series. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 13–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jackson J, Donovan M, Cramer K, Lam V (2014) Status and trends of Caribbean coral reefs: 1970–2012. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, IUCN, Gland Switzerland, 304 pGoogle Scholar
  83. Kaye C (1959) Shoreline features and quaternary shoreline changes, Puerto Rico, USGS Prof. Paper 317-B, 140 pGoogle Scholar
  84. Kinsey DW, Davies PJ (1979) Effects of elevated nitrogen and phosphorous on coral reef growth. Limnol Oceanogr 24:935–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kleypas JA, Buddemeier RW, Archer D, Gattuso J-P, Langdon C, Opdyke BN (1999) Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs. Science 284:118–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Knowlton N (1993) Sibling species in the sea. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 24:189–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ladd HS, Schlanger SO (1960) Drilling operations on Enewetak atoll. USGS Prof. Paper 260-Y, US Government Printing Office, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  88. Land LS (1979) The fate of reef-derived sediment on the north Jamaican island slope. Mar Geol 29:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lessios HA, Robertson DR, Cubit JD (1984) Spread of Diadema mass mortality through the Caribbean. Science 226:335–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lowenstam HA (1950) Niagaran reefs of the Great Lakes area. J Geol 58:430–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lyell C (1832) Principles of geology, vol II. John Murray, London, 330pGoogle Scholar
  92. Macintyre IG, Glynn PW (1976) Evolution of modern Caribbean fringing reef, Galeta Point. AAPG Bull 60:1054–1072Google Scholar
  93. Maragos J (1972) A study of the ecology of Hawaiian coral reefs. PhD dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 280 pGoogle Scholar
  94. McClanahan T, Shafir S (1990) Causes and consequences of sea urchin abundance and diversity in Kenyan coral reef lagoons. Oeceologia 83:362–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McCulloch M, Fallon S, Wyndham T, Hendy E, Lough J, Barnes D (2003) Coral record of increased sediment flux to the inner Great Barrier Reef since European settlement. Nature 421:727–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Milankovitch M (1930) Mathematische Klimalehre und Astronomische Theorie der Klimaschwankungen, Handbuch der Klimalogie Band 1 Teil A Borntrager BerlinGoogle Scholar
  97. Miller J, Muller E, Rogers CS, Waara R, Atkinson A, Whelan KRT, Patterson M, Witcher B (2009) Coral disease following massive bleaching in 2005 causes 60 % decline in coral cover on reefs in the US Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs 28:925–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mojsisovics EMV (1879) Die dolomit-riffe von sudTirol und Venetien. A Holden Co., Wien, 551pGoogle Scholar
  99. Montaggioni L (2005) History of Indo-Pacific coral reef systems since the last glaciation: development patterns and controlling factors. Earth Sci Rev 71:1–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Moore CH, Shedd WW (1977) Effective rates of sponge bioerosion as a function of carbonate production. Proc 3rd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:499–506Google Scholar
  101. Moran PJ (1986) The Acanthaster phenomenon. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 24:379–480Google Scholar
  102. Morelock J, Boulon R, Galler G (1979) Sediment stress and coral reefs. In: Lopez JM (ed) Proceedings of the symposium on energy and industry in the marine environment in Guayanilla Bay, University of Puerto Rico, pp 46–58Google Scholar
  103. Murdock TQ, Fanning AF, Weaver AJ (1997) Paleoclimatic response of the closing of the Isthmus of Panama in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Geophys Res Lett 24:253–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Neumann AC, Macintyre IG (1985) Reef response to sea level rise: keep up catch up or give up. Proc 5th Int Coral Reef Symp 3:105–110Google Scholar
  105. Neumann CJ, Cry GW, Caso EI, Jarvinen BR (1981) Tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871–1980. National Climatic Center Publ, 174p NOAA Environmental Centers for Environmental Information, AshvilleGoogle Scholar
  106. Newell ND (1955) Depositional fabric in Permian reef limestones. J Geol 63:301–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ogston AS, Field ME (2010) Predictions of turbidity due to enhanced sediment resuspension resulting from sea-level rise on a fringing coral reef: evidence from Molokai, Hawaii. J Coast Res 26:1027–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Oliver TA, Palumbi SR (2011) Do fluctuating temperature environments elevate thermal tolerance? Coral Reefs 30:429–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pandolfi JM (2002) Coral community dynamics at multiple scales. Coral Reefs 21:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pandolfi JM, Jackson JBC (1997) The maintenance of diversity on coral reefs: examples from the fossil record. Proc 8th Int Coral Reef Symp 1:397–404Google Scholar
  111. Pandolfi JM, Jackson JBC (2001) Community structure of Pleistocene coral reefs of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. Ecol Monogr 71:49–67Google Scholar
  112. Perry CT, Spencer T, Kench PS (2008) Carbonate budgets and reef production states: a geomorphic perspective on the ecological phase-shift concept. Coral Reefs 27:853–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Perry CT, Edinger EN, Kench PS, Mumby PJ, Murphy G, Steneck RS, Smithers SG (2012) Estimating rates of biologically driven coral reef framework production and erosion: a new census-based carbonate budget methodology and applications to the reefs of Bonaire. Coral Reefs 31:853–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Playford P (1980) Devonian “great barrier reef” of Canning Basin, Western Australia. Am Assoc Petr Geol Bull 64:814–840Google Scholar
  115. Purdy E (1974) Reef configurations: cause and effect. In: LaPorte LF (ed) Reefs in time and space. SEPM Spec. Publ., vol 18, pp 90–76, Tulsa OKGoogle Scholar
  116. Quoy JR, Gaimard JP (1825) Memoire sur l’accroissment des polyps lithophytes consider e geologiquement. Ann Sci Nat 6:373–390Google Scholar
  117. Roberts HH, Murray SF, Suhayda JN (1977) Physical processes in a fore-reef shelf environment. Proc 3rd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:507–515Google Scholar
  118. Rogers CS (1983) Sublethal and lethal effects of sediment applied to common Caribbean corals in the field. Mar Pollut Bull 14:378–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Roy K, Smith SV (1971) Sedimentation and coral development in turbid water: fanning Lagoon. Pac Sci 25:234–248Google Scholar
  120. Ruddiman WF (2005) How did humans first alter global climate? Sci Am 295:46–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Schlager W (1981) The paradox of drowned reefs and carbonate platforms. GSA Bull 92:197–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Schroeder JH, Purser BH (1986) Reef diagenesis. Springer, Berlin, 455pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Schroeder JH, Zankl H (1974) Dynamic reef formation: a sedimentological concept based on studies of Recent Bermuda and Bahamian reefs. Proc 2nd Int Coral Reef Symp 2:413–428Google Scholar
  124. Scoffin TP, Stearn CW, Boucher D, Frydl P, Hawkins CM, Hunter IG, MacGeachy JK (1980) Calcium carbonate budget of a fringing reef on the west coast of Barbados: part II, erosion, sediments and internal structure. Bull Mar Sci 30:47–508Google Scholar
  125. Simskiss K (1964) Phosphates as crystal poisons of calcification. Biol Rev 39:487–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Stanley GD, Fagerstrom (1988) Ancient reef ecosystems. Palaios 3:1–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stearn CW, Scoffin TP, Martindale W (1977) Calcium carbonate budget of a fringing reef on the west coast of Barbados – zonation and productivity. Bull Mar Sci 27:479–510Google Scholar
  128. Steneck RS (1988) Herbivory on coral reefs: a synthesis. Proc 6th Int Coral Reef Symp 1:37–49Google Scholar
  129. Taylor JD, Saloman R (1978) Some effects of hydraulic dredging and coastal development in Boca Clega Bay, FL. Fish Bull 67:213–241Google Scholar
  130. Teichert C (1958) Cold- and deep-water coral banks. Am Assoc Petr Geol Bull 42:1064–1082Google Scholar
  131. Thompson LG, Mosley-Thompson E, Davis ME, Lin PN, Henderson KA, Dole-Dai J, Bolzan JF, Jiu KB (1995) Late glacial stage and Holocene tropical ice core records from Huascaran, Peru. Science 269:46–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Toomey M, Ashton AD, Perron JT (2013) Profiles of ocean island coral reefs controlled by sea-level history and carbonate accumulation rates. Geology 41:731–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. US Naval Weather Service Command (1979) Summary of synoptic meteorological observations (SSMO) – Caribbean and nearby island coastal marine areas. National Climatic Center, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  134. Vail PR, Mitchum RM, Thompson S III, Todd RG, Sangree JB, Widmier JM, Bubb NM, Natelid WG (1977) Seismic stratigraphy and global sea level changes. Am Assoc Petr Geol Bull Mem 26:49–212Google Scholar
  135. van Eepol R, Grigg D (1970) Effects of dredging at Great Bay, St. John. Water. Pollution report 5. Caribbean Research Institute, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas USVIGoogle Scholar
  136. Vermeij GJ (1978) Biogeography and adaptation. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  137. Vermeij GJ (1993) Biological history of a seaway. Science 260:1603–1604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Viau C (1988) The Devonian Swan Hills formation at Swan Hills field and adjacent areas, central Alberta, Canada: In: Harris P (ed) SEPM core workshop no. 12, pp 803–853, Tulsa OKGoogle Scholar
  139. Walker ND, Roberts HH, Rouse LJ, Huh OJ (1982) Thermal history of reef-associated environments during cold-air outbreak event. Coral Reefs 1:83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Weber JN, White EW (1974) Activation energy for skeletal aragonite deposited in the hermatypic coral Platygyra app. Mar Biol 26:353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Webster PJ, Holland GJ, Curry JA, Chang H-R (2005) Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration and intensity in a warming environment. Science 309:1844–1846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Weinstein DK, Smith TB, Klaus JS (2014) Mesophotic Bioerosion: variability and structural impact on U.S. Virgin Island deep reefs. Geomorphology. doi: 10.1016/ j.geomorph.2014.03.005 Google Scholar
  143. Wellington GM, Glynn PW, Strong AE, Navarrete SA, Wieters E, Hubbard DK (2000) Crisis on coral reefs linked to climate change. Eos 82:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Whitcher E (2011) Macrobioerosion rates of in-situ coral colonies: St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. In: Proc 24th Keck Geology Symp 24:219–225Google Scholar
  145. Whitcher E, Hubbard DK, Parsons-Hubbard K, Miller J (2012) Bioerosion of in situ coral colonies. Book of Abstracts:13th international coral reef symposium p 200 Cairns, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  146. Wilkinson CR (1987) Interocean differences in size and nutrition of coral sponge populations. Science 236:1654–1657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Zeebe EE, Wolf-Gladrow DA (2001) CO2 in seawater: equilibrium, kinetics and isotopes. Elsevier Oceanography Ser No 65, 346 p AmsterdamGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyOberlin CollegeOberlinUSA

Personalised recommendations