Advertisement

Changing Influences Between Life and Limestones in Earth History

Chapter

Abstract

Coral reefs are among the most beautiful, diverse and fascinating ecosystems in the modern oceans. For anyone intrigued by reefs, their geologic history is a never-ending mystery series, complete with paradoxes to unravel and mass “murders” to solve given only partial texts and enigmatic clues. Limestones not only record much of the history of life on Earth, they are a major reason why life occurs on Earth! Moreover, they “go missing” at catastrophic events that, on several occasions, caused extinctions of more than half of all multicellular species. The production and preservation of reef limestones is intimately connected to the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles, especially of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus. Continental collisions, changes in sea-floor spreading rates, massive meteor impacts, and glacial-interglacial cycles with resulting changes in sea level, are all subplots in the history of reefs. The evolution of photosynthesis that triggered the first global “pollution” event, the escalation of predation as indicated by increasing prevalence of shells, and the ubiquitous and repeated development of mutualistic symbioses, provide analogies to modern environmental challenges. The Earth’s biogeochemical cycles, which have evolved over more than 4,000 million years, have been profoundly disrupted by human activities. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, for example, has increased more over the past 200 years than it did between glacial advances and retreats. Within this century, atmospheric CO2 concentrations will rise to levels comparable to those 40–50 million years ago. The records preserved in limestones can provide scientists and policy makers with insights into likely consequences of human activities for the future not only of reefs, but of the diversity of ecosystems on Earth.

Keywords

Carbonate Tectonics Calcification Biogeochemical Carbon cycle 

References

  1. Adams CG, Lee DE, Rosen BR (1991) Conflicting isotopic and biotic evidence for tropical sea-surface temperatures during the Tertiary. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 77:289–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agawin NSR, Duarte GM (2002) Evidence of direct particle trapping by a tropical seagrass meadow. Estuaries 25:1205–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarez W (2003) Comparing the evidence relevant to impact and flood basalt at times of major mass extinctions. Astrobiology 3:153–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Axelrod DI (1992) What is an equable climate. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 91:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barash MS (2012) Mass extinction of ocean organisms at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary: effects and causes. Oceanology 52:238–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bathurst RGC (1976) Carbonate sediments and their diagenesis. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 658Google Scholar
  7. Baumgartner LK, Reid RP, Dupraz C, Decho AW, Buckley DH, Spear JR, Przekop KM, Visscher PT (2006) Sulfate reducing bacteria in microbial mats: changing paradigms, new discoveries. Sediment Geol 185:131–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beavington-Penney SJ, Racey A (2004) Ecology of extant nummulitids and other larger benthic foraminifera: applications in palaeoenvironmental analysis. Earth-Sci Rev 67:219–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beerling DJ, Berner RA (2005) Feedbacks and the coevolution of plants and atmospheric CO2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:1302–1305PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berner RA (2004) The Phanerozoic carbon cycle: CO2 and O2. Oxford University Press, New York, p 150Google Scholar
  11. Berner RA (2006) Inclusion of the weathering of volcanic rocks in the GEOCARBSULF model. Am J Sci 306:295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernhard JM, Edgcomb VP, Visscher PT, McIntyre-Wressnig A, Summons RE, Bouxsein ML, Louis L, Jeglinski M (2013) Insights into foraminiferal influences on microfabrics of microbialites at Highborne Cay, Bahamas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:9830–9834PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhattacharji S, Chatterjee N, Wampler JM, Nayak PN, Deshmukh SS (1996) Indian intraplate and continental margin rifting, lithospheric extension, and mantle upwelling in Deccan flood basalt volcanism near the K/T boundary: evidence from mafic dike swarms. J Geol 104:379–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bryan JR (1991) A Paleocene coral-algal-sponge reef from southwestern Alabama and the ecology of early Tertiary reefs. Lethaia 24:423–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Camoin GF, Davies PJ (eds) (1998) Reefs and carbonate platforms in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. International Association of Sedimentologists, London, Blackwell Science, London, Spec Publ 25, 336 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Canfield DE, Raiswell R (1999) The evolution of the sulfur cycle. Am J Sci 299:697–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cloud P (1973) Paleoecological significance of banded-iron formation. Econ Geol 68:1135–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen AL, McConnaughey TA (2003) Geochemical perspectives on coral mineralization. Rev Mineral Geochem 54:151–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Condie KC (1989) Origin of the Earth’s crust. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 75:57–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Conway Morris S (1993) The fossil record and the early evolution of the Metazoa. Nature 361:219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Copper P (1994) Ancient reef ecosystem expansion and collapse. Coral Reefs 13:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Copper P (2002) Silurian and Devonian reefs: 80 million years of global greenhouse betwee two ice ages. In: Kiessling W, Flügel E, Golonka J (eds) Phanerozoic reef patterns, Spec Publ 72. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 181–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crevello PD, Wilson JL, Sarg JF, Read JF (eds) (1989) Controls on carbonate platform and Basin Development. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, Spec Publ 44, 405 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. DeConto RM, Pollard D (2003) Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2. Nature 421:245–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Delmas RJ (1992) Environmental information form ice cores. Rev Geophys 30:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dill RF, Shinn EA, Jones AT et al (1986) Giant subtidal stromatolites forming in normal salinity waters. Nature 324:55–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dobretsov N, Kochanov N, Rozanov A, Zavarzin G (eds) (2008) Biosphere origin and evolution. Springer, New York, 427 ppGoogle Scholar
  28. Drake MJ (2000) Accretion and primary differentiation of the Earth: a personal journey. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64:2363–2369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Edinger EN, Risk MJ (1994) Oligocene-Miocene extinction and geographic restriction of Caribbean corals – roles of turbidity, temperature and nutrients. Palaios 9:576–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eyles N (1993) Earth’s glacial record and its tectonic setting. Earth-Sci Rev 35:1–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fagerstrom JA (1987) The evolution of reef communities. Wiley, New York, 600 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Feely RA, Doney SC, Cooley SR (2009) Ocean acidification: present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 2:39–47Google Scholar
  33. Fischer AG, Arthur MA (1977) Secular variations in the pelagic realm. In: Cook HE, Enos P (eds) Deep-water carbonate environments, Spec Publ 25. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 19–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Flower BP (1999) Paleoclimatology – warming without high CO2? Nature 399:313–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Flügel E (2002) Triassic reef patterns. In: Kiessling W, Flügel E, Golonka J (eds) Phanerozoic reef patterns, Spec Publ 72. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 391–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Frakes LA, Francis JE (1988) A guide to Phanerozoic cold polar climates from high-latitude ice-rafting in the Cretaceous. Nature 333:547–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frost SH (1977) Cenozoic reef systems of Caribbean – prospects for paleoecologic synthesis. In: Frost SH, Weiss MP, Saunders JB (eds) Reefs and related carbonates – ecology and sedimentology. Am Assoc Petrol Geol, Tulsa, OK, Stud Geol 4:93–110Google Scholar
  38. Fukami H, Budd AF, Paulay G, Sole-Cava A, Chen CLA, Iwao K, Knowlton N (2004) Conventional taxonomy obscures deep divergence between Pacific and Atlantic corals. Nature 427:832–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gilliland RL (1989) Solar evolution. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 75:35–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Glynn PW (1988) El Niño warming, coral mortality and reef framework destruction by echinoid bioerosion in the eastern Pacific. Galaxea 7:129–160Google Scholar
  41. Grant J, Gust G (1987) Prediction of coastal sediment stability from photopigment content of mats of purple sulfur bacteria. Nature 330:244–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Grotzinger JP (1989) Facies and evolution of Precambrian carbonate depositional systems: emergence of the modern platform archetype. In: Crevello PD, Wilson JL, Sarg JF, Read JF (eds) Controls on carbonate platform and basin development, Spec Publ 44. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Tulsa, pp 79–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grotzinger JP, Knoll AH (1999) Stromatolites in Precambrian carbonates: evolutionary mileposts or environmental dipsticks? Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 27:313–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hallam A (1985) Jurassic molluscan migration and evolution in relation to sea level changes. In: Friedman GM (ed) Sedimentary and evolutionary cycles. Springer, Berlin, pp 4–5Google Scholar
  45. Hallock P (1987) Fluctuations in the trophic resource continuum: a factor in global diversity cycles? Paleoceanography 2:457–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hallock P (1988) The role of nutrient availability in bioerosion: consequences to carbonate buildups. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 62:275–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hallock P (2001) Coral reefs, carbonate sedimentation, nutrients, and global change. In: Stanley GD Jr (ed) The history and sedimentology of ancient reef ecosystems. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 387–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hallock P (2011) Modern coral reefs under global change: new opportunities to understand carbonate depositional hiatuses. In: Stanley GD Jr (ed) Corals and reefs: crises, collapse and change. The Paleontological Society Papers 17:121–130Google Scholar
  49. Hallock P, Peebles MW (1993) Foraminifera with chlorophyte endosymbionts: habitats of six species in the Florida Keys. Mar Micropaleontol 20:277–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hallock P, Premoli Silva I, Boersma A (1991) Similarities between planktonic and larger foraminiferal evolutionary trends through Paleogene paleoceanographic changes. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 83:49–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Harbaugh JW (1974) Stratigraphy and the geologic time scale. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, 136 ppGoogle Scholar
  52. Hardie LA (1996) Secular variation in seawater chemistry: an explanation for the coupled secular variation in the mineralogies of marine limestones and potash evaporites over the past 600 my. Geology 24:279–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Haug GH, Tiedemann R, Zahn R, Ravelo AC (2001) Role of Panama uplift on oceanic freshwater balance. Geology 29:207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Höfling R, Scott RW (2002) Early and mid-Cretaceous buildups. In: Kiessling W, Flügel E, Golonka J (eds) Phanerozoic reef patterns, Spec Publ 72. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 521–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Holland HD (2006) The oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans. Phil Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 361:903–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. James NP (1983) Reefs. In: Scholle PA, Bebout DG, Moore CH (eds) Carbonate depositional environments. Am Assoc Petrol Geol, Tulsa, Memoir 33:345–462Google Scholar
  57. James NP (1997) The cool-water carbonate depositional realm. In: James NP, Clarke JAD (eds) Cool-water carbonates, Spec. Publ. No. 56. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. James NP, Clarke JAD (eds) (1997) Cool-water carbonates. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, Spec. Publ. No. 56, 440 ppGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnson CC, Sanders D, Kauffman EG, Hay WW (2002) Patterns and processes influencing upper Cretaceous reefs. In: Kiessling W, Flügel E, Golonka J (eds) Phanerozoic reef patterns. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 549–585, Spec Publ 72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kauffman EG, Johnson CC (1988) The morphological and ecological evolution of middle and upper Cretaceous reef building rudistids. Palaios 3:194–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kennett JP (1982) Marine geology. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 813 ppGoogle Scholar
  62. Kiessling W (2001) Phanerozoic reef trends based on the Paleoreef Database. In: Stanley GD Jr (ed) The history and sedimentology of ancient reef ecosystems. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 41–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kiessling W, Flügel E, Golonka J (eds) (2002) Phanerozoic reef patterns. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, Spec Publ 72:775 ppGoogle Scholar
  64. Kinsey DW, Hopley D (1991) The significance of coral reefs as global carbon sinks–response to Greenhouse. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 89:363–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Knoll AH, Javaux EJ, Hewitt D, Cohen P (2006) Eukaryotic organisms in Proterozoic oceans. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 361:1023–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lathuiliére B, Marchal D (2009) Extinction, survival and recovery of corals from the Triassic to Middle Jurassic time. Terra Nova 21:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lees A (1975) Possible influence of salinity and temperature on modern shelf carbonate sedimentation. Mar Geol 19:159–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leinfelder RR, Schmid DU, Nose M, Werner W (2002) Jurassic reef patterns–the expression of a changing globe. In: Kiessling W, Flügel E, Golonka J (eds) Phanerozoic reef patterns, Spec Publ 72. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 465–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Logan BW, Read JF, Hagan GM et al (1974) Evolution and diagenesis of Quaternary carbonate sequences, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Mem 22:358 ppGoogle Scholar
  70. Lovelock JE (2000) The ages of Gaia: a biography of our living earth. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 267Google Scholar
  71. Lutz BP (2010) Low-latitude northern hemisphere oceanographic and climatic responses to early shoaling of the Central American Seaway. Stratigraphy 7:151–176Google Scholar
  72. Mackenzie FT, Anderssen AJ (2013) The marine carbon system and ocean acidification during Phanerozoic Time. Geochem Pers 2:227 ppGoogle Scholar
  73. MacLeod N, Keller G (1996) Cretaceous-tertiary mass extinctions: biotic and environmental changes. W. W. Norton and Company, New York, 575 ppGoogle Scholar
  74. Maier-Reimer E, Mikalojewicz U, Crowley T (1990) Ocean GCM sensitivity experiment with an open Central American isthmus. Paleoceanography 5:349–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Margulis L (1993) Symbiosis and cell evolution, 2nd edn. Freeman, New York, 419 ppGoogle Scholar
  76. Martindale RC, Berelson WM, Corsetti FA, Bottjer DJ, West AJ (2012) Constraining carbonate chemistry at a potential ocean acidification event (the Triassic-Jurassic boundary) using the presence of corals and coral reefs in the fossil record. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 350:114–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McConnaughey TA, Whelan JF (1997) Calcification generates protons for nutrient and bicarbonate uptake. Earth-Sci Rev 42:95–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Milliman JD (1974) Marine carbonates. Springer, Berlin, 375 ppGoogle Scholar
  79. Monty CLV (1995) The rise and nature of carbonate mud-mounds: an introductory actualistic approach. Int Assoc Sedimentol Spec Publ 23:11–48Google Scholar
  80. Morse JW, Mackenzie FT (1990) Geochemistry of sedimentary carbonates. Elsevier, New York, 707 ppGoogle Scholar
  81. Neumann AC (1966) Observations on coastal erosion in Bermuda and measurements of the boring rates of the sponge Cliona lampa. Limnol Oceanogr 11:92–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nisancioglu KH, Raymo ME, Stone PH (2003) Reorganization of Miocene deep-water circulation in response to the shoaling of the Central American Seaway. Paleoceanography 18: art. #1006Google Scholar
  83. Och LM, Shields-Zhou GA (2012) The Neoproterozoic oxygenation event: environmental perturbations and biogeochemical cycling. Earth-Sci Rev 110:26–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Officer CB, Drake CL (1985) Terminal cretaceous environmental events. Science 227:1161–1167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pagani M, Caldeira K, Berner R, Beerling DJ (2009) The role of terrestrial plants in limiting atmospheric CO2 decline over the past 24 million years. Nature 460:85–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pearson PN, Palmer MR (2000) Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years. Nature 406:695–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pearson PN, Ditchfield PW, Singano J, Harcourt-Brown KG, Nicholas CJ, Olsson RK, Shackleton NJ, Hall MA (2001) Warm tropical sea surface temperatures in the late Cretaceous and Eocene epochs. Nature 413:481–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pentecost A (1991) Calcification processes in algae and cyanobacteria. In: Riding R (ed) Calcareous algae and stromatolites. Springer, New York, pp 3–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Perrin C (2002) Tertiary: the emergence of modern reef ecosystems. In: Kiessling W, Flügel E, Golonka J (eds) Phanerozoic reef patterns, Spec Publ 72. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 587–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pierrehumbert RT, Abbot DS, Voigt A, Koll D (2011) Climate of the neoproterozoic. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 39:417–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Plaziat JC, Perrin C (1992) Multikilometer sized reefs built by foraminiferans (Solenomeris) from the early Eocene of the Pyrenean domain (S France, N Spain): paleoecologic relations with coral reefs. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 96:195–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pochon X, Montoya-Burgos JI, Stadelmann B, Pawlowski J (2006) Molecular phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence timing of the symbiotic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium. Mol Phylogenet Evol 38:20–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pomar L (2001) Types of carbonate platforms: a genetic approach. Basin Res 13:313–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pomar L, Hallock P (2008) Carbonate factories: a conundrum in sedimentary geology. Earth-Sci Rev 87:134–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pomar L, Morsilli M, Hallock P, Bádenas B (2012) Internal waves, an under-explored source of turbulence events in the sedimentary record. Earth-Sci Rev 111:56–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Raymo ME (1994) The initiation of northern hemisphere glaciation. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 22:353–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Reid RP, Macintyre IG, Browne KM, Steneck RS, Miller T (1995) Modern marine stromatolites in the Exuma-Cays, Bahamas – uncommonly common. Facies 33:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Reid RP, Visscher PT, Decho AW, Stolz JF, Bebout BM, Dupraz C, Macintyre IG, Paerl HW, Pinckney JL, Prufert-Bebout L, Steppe TF, Des Marais DJ (2000) The role of microbes in accretion, lamination and early lithification of modern marine stromatolites. Nature 406:989–992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Reid RP, James NP, Macintyre IG, Dupraz CP, Burne RV (2003) Shark Bay stromatolites: microfabrics and reinterpretation of origins. Facies 49:299–324Google Scholar
  100. Riding R (ed) (1991) Calcareous algae and stromatolites. Springer, New York, 571 ppGoogle Scholar
  101. Riding R (2000) Microbial carbonates: the geological record of calcified bacterial-algal mats and biofilms. Sedimentology 47(Suppl 1):179–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Riding R (2004) Solenopora is a chaetetid sponge, not an alga. Palaeontology 47:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Robbins LL, Blackwelder PL (1992) Biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for the origin of whitings – a biologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation mechanism. Geology 20:464–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rosen BR (1998) Corals, reefs, algal symbiosis and global change: the Lazarus factor. In: Culver SJ, Rawson PF (eds) Biotic response to global change: the last 145 million years. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 164–180Google Scholar
  105. Rosenquist J, Chassefiere E (1995) Inorganic-chemistry of O2 in a dense primitive atmosphere. Planet Space Sci 43:3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rowland SM, Shapiro RS (2002) Reef patterns and environmental influences in the Cambrian and earliest Ordovician. In: Kiessling W, Flügel E, Golonka J (eds) Phanerozoic reef patterns, Spec Publ 72. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 95–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sandberg P (1983) An oscillating trend in Phanerozoic non-skeletal carbonate mineralogy. Nature 305:19–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schlager W (1981) The paradox of drowned reefs and carbonate platforms. Geol Soc Am Bull Part 1 92:197–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schlager W (2000) Sedimentation rates and growth potential of tropical, cool water and mud mound carbonate factories. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 178:217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schlager W (2003) Benthic carbonate factories of the Phanerozoic. Int J Earth Sci 92:445–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Scholle PA, Bebout DG, Moore CH (eds) (1983) Carbonate depositional environments. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Memoir 33, 708 ppGoogle Scholar
  112. Scotese CR (2002) http://www.scotese.com (PALEOMAP website)
  113. Seibold E, Berger WH (2010) The sea floor: an introduction to marine geology, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/New York/Heidelberg, 288 ppGoogle Scholar
  114. Skelton PW (1976) Functional morphology of the Hippuritidae. Lethaia 9:83–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Skelton PW, Gili E (2012) Rudists and carbonate platforms in the Aptian: a case study on biotic interactions with ocean chemistry and climate. Sedimentology 59(SI):81–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Skelton PW, Gili E, Masse J-P (1992) Rudists as successful sediment-dwellers, not reef-builders, on Cretaceous carbonate platforms: Fifth North Am Paleontol Conv Abstracts and Program, Paleontological Society Spec Publ 6:271Google Scholar
  117. Stanley GD Jr (1992) Tropical reef ecosystems and their evolution. Encycl Earth Syst Sci 4:375–388Google Scholar
  118. Stanley GD Jr (ed) (2001) The history and sedimentology of ancient reef ecosystems. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 458 ppGoogle Scholar
  119. Stanley GD Jr (2003) The evolution of modern corals and their early history. Earth-Sci Rev 60:195–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stanley SM, Hardie LA (1998) Secular oscillations in the carbonate mineralogy of reef-building and sediment-producing organisms driven by tectonically forced shifts in seawater chemistry. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 144:3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Swart PK, Eberli GP, McKenzie J (eds) (2009) Perspective in carbonate geology: a tribute to the career of Robert Nathan Ginsburg, IAS Special Publication 41Google Scholar
  122. Toomey DF (ed) (1981) European fossil reef models. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, Spec Publ 30, 546 ppGoogle Scholar
  123. Vescei A, Berger WH (2004) Increase of atmospheric CO2 during deglaciation: constraints on the coral reef hypothesis from patterns of deposition. Global Biogeochem Cycles 18(1):GB1035Google Scholar
  124. Veron JEN (2000) Corals of the world, vol 1. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, 463 ppGoogle Scholar
  125. Wahlman GP (2002) Upper Carboniferous–Lower Permian (Bashkirian-Kungarian) mounds and reefs. In: Kiessling W, Flügel E, Golonka J (eds) Phanerozoic reef patterns, Spec Publ 72. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 271–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Webb GE (2001) Biologically induced carbonate precipitation in reefs through time. In: Stanley GD Jr (ed) The history and sedimentology of ancient reef ecosystems. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 159–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Webb GE (2002) Latest Devonian and early Carboniferous reefs: depressed reef building after the middle Paleozoic collapse. In: Kiessling W, Flügel E, Golonka J (eds) Phanerozoic reef patterns, Spec Publ 72. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 239–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Webby BD (2002) Patterns of Ordovician reef development. In: Kiessling W, Flügel E, Golonka J (eds) Phanerozoic reef patterns, Spec Publ 72. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 129–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Weidlich O (2002) Middle and late Permian reefs – distributional patters and reservoir potential. In: Kiessling W, Flügel E, Golonka J (eds) Phanerozoic reef patterns, Spec Publ 72. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Tulsa, pp 339–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wells JW (1957) Coral reefs. In: Hedgpeth JW (ed) Treatise on marine ecology and paleoecology, vol 1, Ecology, memoir 67. The Geological Society of America, New York, pp 609–631Google Scholar
  131. Wood R (1999) Reef evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 426 ppGoogle Scholar
  132. Wooldridge SA (2013) Breakdown of the coral-algae symbiosis: towards formalising a linkage between warm-water bleaching thresholds and the growth rate of the intracellular zooxanthellae. Biogeosciences 10:1647–1658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Worsley TR, Nance RD, Moody JB (1986) Tectonic cycles and the history of the earth’s biogeochemical and paleoceanographic record. Paleoceanography 3:233–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Yajnik KS, Swathi PS (2012) Inter-decadal trends in the annual cycles of atmospheric CO2 at Mauna Loa. Curr Sci 102:774–782Google Scholar
  135. Yuan XL, Xiao SH, Taylor TN (2005) Lichen-like symbiosis 600 million years ago. Science 308:1017–1020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Marine ScienceUniversity of South FloridaSt. PetersburgUSA

Personalised recommendations