Skip to main content

Conceptions of Integrating Students’ Experiences

  • Chapter
  • 757 Accesses

Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL,volume 13)

Abstract

As noted in earlier chapters, there is growing interest in providing higher education students with experiences in practice settings and then integrating them within educational programs. Now, that workplace experiences are becoming a component of a wide array of higher education programs, the interest in this integration has grown accordingly. Yet, few explanatory accounts exist about what constitutes such integrations and, therefore, how they might be best enacted as part of the curriculum and engaged with by learners (e.g. students, workers or apprentices). The integration of these two sets of experiences can be explained in a number of ways. One is to consider the qualities and characteristics of each physical and social setting (i.e. universities and workplaces), and as objective entities, and identify their potential contributions to students’ learning, and reconcile and aggregate these experiences. Conversely, another focuses on individuals as meaning makers, and the exercise of their reconciliation of what they encounter and develop further through their experiences across these settings. A third explanation is a dualistic socio-personal account that views the integration of experiences as processes through which each setting affords learners’ particular experiences and accounts for how they engage with, construe and reconcile those experiences as directed by their interests, capacities and cognitive experience. This case is advanced here, elaborated and discussed as a means of understanding the process of students’ reconciliation of those experiences and how it might be promoted in higher education.

Keywords

  • Practice Setting
  • Social Setting
  • Explanatory Account
  • Cognitive Experience
  • High Education Student

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-7230-3_4
  • Chapter length: 24 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-94-017-7230-3
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Notes

  1. 1.

    Not all of these experiences are located within physical workplaces, hence the use of the term practice-based experiences. For instance, midwifery students’ continuity-of-care experiences arise through the students engaging with birthing women across their prenatal phases and these interactions do not occur in birthing workplaces.

References

  • Akkerman, S. F., & Bakker, A. (2011). Boundary crossing and boundary objects. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 132–169.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Akkerman, S. F., & Bakker, A. (2012). Crossing boundaries between school and work during apprenticeships. Vocations and Learning: Studies in Vocational and Professional Education, 5(2), 153–173.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, J. R. (1982). Acquisition of cognitive skill. Psychological Review, 89(4), 369–406.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, J. R. (1993). Problem solving and learning. American Psychologist, 48(1), 35–44.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baldwin, J. M. (1894). Personality-suggestion. Psychological Review, 1, 274–279.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barsalou, L. W. (2008). Grounded cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 617–645.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barsalou, L. W. (2009). Simulation, situated conceptualisation, and prediction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 364, 1281–1289.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Billett, S. (1994). Situated learning – A workplace experience. Australian Journal of Adult and Community Education, 34(2), 112–130.

    Google Scholar 

  • Billett, S. (2001a). Knowing in practice: Re-conceptualising vocational expertise. Learning and Instruction, 11(6), 431–452.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Billett, S. (2001b). Learning in the workplace: Strategies for effective practice. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Billett, S. (2003). Sociogeneses, activity and ontogeny. Culture and Psychology, 9(2), 133–169.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Billett, S. (2006). Relational interdependence between social and individual agency in work and working life. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 13(1), 53–69.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Billett, S. (2008). Learning throughout working life: A relational interdependence between social and individual agency. British Journal of Education Studies, 55(1), 39–58.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Billett, S. (2009a). Conceptualising learning experiences: Contributions and mediations of the social, personal and brute. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 16(1), 32–47.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Billett, S. (2009b). Personal epistemologies, work and learning. Educational Research Review, 4, 210–219.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Billett, S. (2009c). Realising the educational worth of integrating work experiences in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 34(7), 827–843.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Billett, S. (2013). Recasting transfer as a socio-personal process of adaptable learning. Educational Research Review, 8, 5–13.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Billett, S., Smith, R., & Barker, M. (2005). Understanding work, learning and the remaking of cultural practices. Studies in Continuing Education, 27(3), 219–237.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32–34.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chi, M. T. H., Feltovich, P. J., & Glaser, R. (1981). Categorisation and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, 5, 121–152.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cleland, J., Leaman, J., & Billett, S. (2014). Developing medical capacities and dispositions through practice-based experiences. In C. Harteis, A. Rausch, & J. Seifried (Eds.), Discourses on professional learning: On the boundary between learning and working (pp. 211–219). Dordrecht: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coll, R. K., & Zegwaard, K. E. (2011). International handbook for cooperative & work-integrated education. Lowell: World Association for Cooperative Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Department of Innovation Universities and Skills. (2008). Higher education at work: High skills: High value. Sheffield: Department of Innovation, Universities and Skills.

    Google Scholar 

  • Donald, M. (1991). Origins of the modern mind: Three stages in the evolution of culture and cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eames, C., & Coll, R. (2010). Cooperative education: Integrating classroom and workplace learning. In S. Billett (Ed.), Learning through practice (pp. 180–196). Dordrecht: Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Elias, J. L. (1995). Philosophy of education: Classical and contemporary. Malabar: Krieger Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ericsson, K. A. (2006). The influence of experience and deliberate practice on the development of superior expert performance. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltowich, & R. R. Hoffmann (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 685–705). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ericsson, K. A., & Lehmann, A. C. (1996). Expert and exceptional performance: Evidence of maximal adaptation to task constraints. Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 273–305.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gardner, H. (2004). What we do & don’t know about learning. Daedalus, 133(1), 5–12.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gergen, K. J. (1994). Realities and relationships: Soundings in social construction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Glenberg, A. M., Schroeder, J. L., & Robertson, D. A. (1998). Averting the gaze disengages the environment and facilitates remembering. Memory and Cognition, 26(4), 651–658.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Griffiths, T., & Guile, D. (2003). A connective model of learning: The implications for work process knowledge. European Educational Research Journal, 2(1), 56–73.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grollman, P., & Tutschner, R. (2006). Possible intended and unintended effects of European VET policies – The case of integrating work and learning. Paper presented at the European Research Network in Vocational Education and Training Symposium, Geneva.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grubb, W. N., & Badway, N. (1998). Linking school-based and work-based learning: The implications of LaGuardia’s co-op seminars for school-to-work programs (pp. 1–30). Berkeley: National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guile, D., & Young, M. (2003). Transfer and transition in vocational education: Some theoretical considerations. In T. Tuomi-Grohn & Y. Engestrom (Eds.), Between school and work: New perspectives on transfer and boundary crossing (pp. 63–81). New York: Pergamon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hodges, D. C. (1998). Participation as dis-identification with/in a community of practice. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 5(4), 272–290.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lave, J. (1991). Situating learning in communities of practice. In L. B. Resnick, J. M. Levine, & S. Teasley (Eds.), Perspectives on socially shared cognition (pp. 63–82). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, Y. J., & Roth, W.-M. (2005). The (unlikely) trajectory of learning in a salmon hatchery. Journal of Workplace Learning, 17, 243–254.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Luria, A. R. (1976). Cognitive development: Its cultural and social foundations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Malle, B. F., Moses, L. J., & Baldwin, D. A. (2001). Introduction: The significance of intentionality. In B. F. Malle, L. J. Moses, & D. A. Baldwin (Eds.), Intentions and intentionality: Foundations of social cognition (pp. 1–26). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marsick, V. J., & Watkins, K. (1990). Informal and incidental learning in the workplace. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, P. J., & Goodnow, J. J. (1995). Cultural practices: Towards an integration of culture and development. In J. J. Goodnow, P. J. Miller, & F. Kessel (Eds.), Cultural practices as contexts for development (Vol. 67, pp. 5–16). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Newton, J., Billett, S., Jolly, B., & Ockerby, C. (2009a). Lost in translation: Barriers to learning in health professional clinical education. Learning in Health and Social Care, 8(4), 315–327.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Newton, J., Billett, S., & Ockerby, C. (2009b). Journeying through clinical placements – An examination of six student cases. Nursing Education Today, 29(6), 630–634.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Newton, J., Kelly, C., Kremser, K., Jolly, B., & Billett, S. (2009c). The motivations to nurse: An exploration of factors amongst undergraduate students, registered nurses and nurse managers. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(3), 392–400.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2010). Learning for jobs. Paris: OECD.

    Google Scholar 

  • Papadopoulos, D. (2008). In the ruins of representation: Identity, individuality, subjectification. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47(1), 139–165.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Perkins, D. (1997). Person-plus: A distributed view of thinking and learning. In G. Salomon (Ed.), Distributed cognitions: Psychological and educational considerations (pp. 88–110). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perkins, D., Jay, E., & Tishman, S. (1993). Beyond abilities: A dispositional theory of thinking. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 39(1), 1–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • Piaget, J. (1968). Structuralism (C. Maschler, trans. and ed.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    Google Scholar 

  • Piaget, J. (1971). Structuralism (C. Maschler, trans. and ed.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raizen, S. A. (1989). Reforming education for work: A cognitive science perspective. Berkeley: National Centre for Research in Vocational Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Richards, J., Sweet, L., & Billett, S. (2013). Preparing medical students as agentic learners through enhancing student engagement in clinical education. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(4), 251–263.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ricks, F. (1996). Principles for structuring cooperative education programs. Journal of Cooperative Education, 31(2–3), 8–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rogoff, B., & Lave, J. (Eds.). (1984). Everyday cognition: Its development in social context. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roth, W. M., & Roychoudhury, A. (1993). The concept map as a tool for the collaborative construction of knowledge: A microanalysis of high school physics students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30(5), 503–534.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Salomon, G. (1997). No distribution without individuals’ cognition: A dynamic interactional view. In G. Salomon (Ed.), Distributed cognitions: Psychological and educational considerations (pp. 11–139). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schutz, A. (1970). In H. Wagner (Ed.), On phenomenology and social relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scribner, S. (1984). Studying working intelligence. In B. Rogoff & J. Lave (Eds.), Everyday cognition: Its development in social context (pp. 9–40). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smagorinsky, P. (2011). Vygotsky and literacy research: A methodological framework. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stenstrom, M.-L., Grollman, P., Tutschner, R., Tynjala, P., Nikkanen, P., & Loogma, K. (2006). Integration of work and learning: Policies, strategies and practices. Paper presented at the European Research Network in Vocational Education and Training Symposium, Geneva.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevenson, J. C. (1991). Cognitive structures for the teaching of adaptability in vocational education. In G. Evans (Ed.), Learning and teaching cognitive skills (pp. 144–163). Hawthorn: ACER.

    Google Scholar 

  • Symonds, W. C., Schwartz, R. B., & Ferguson, R. (2011). Pathways to prosperity: Meeting the challenge of preparing young people for the 21st century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tobias, S. (1994). Interest, prior knowledge, and learning. Review of Educational Research, 64(1), 37–54.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tuomi-Grohn, T., & Engestrom, Y. (Eds.). (2003). Between school and work: New perspectives on transfer and boundary crossing. New York: Pergamon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tynjala, P. (2008). Perspectives into learning in the workplace. Education Research Review, 3(2), 130–154.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tynjälä, P., Välimaa, J., & Sarja, A. (2003). Pedagogical perspectives into the relationship between higher education and working life. Higher Education, 46, 147–166.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Universities Australia. (2008). A National Internship Scheme: Enhancing the skills and work-readiness of Australian university graduates. Canberra: Universities Australia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Valsiner, J. (1998). The guided mind: A sociogenetic approach to personality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Valsiner, J. (2000). Culture and human development. London: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Valsiner, J., & van der Veer, R. (2000). The social mind: The construction of an idea. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Lehn, V. (1989). Towards a theory of impasse-driven learning. In H. Mandl & A. Lesgold (Eds.), Learning issues for intelligent tutoring systems (pp. 19–41). New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • von Glasersfeld, E. (1987). Learning as a constructive activity. In C. Janvier (Ed.), Problems of representation in the teaching and learning of mathematics (pp. 3–17). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Voss, J. F. (1987). Learning and transfer in subject matter learning: A problem-solving model. International Journal of Educational Research, 11(6), 607–622.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wertsch, J. W. (1991). A sociocultural approach to socially shared cognition. In L. B. Resnick, J. M. Levine, & S. D. Teasley (Eds.), Perspectives on socially shared cognition (pp. 85–100). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wertsch, J., & Tulviste, P. (1992). L. S. Vygotsky and contemporary developmental psychology. Developmental Psychology, 28(4), 548–557.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Billett, S. (2015). Conceptions of Integrating Students’ Experiences. In: Integrating Practice-based Experiences into Higher Education. Professional and Practice-based Learning, vol 13. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-7230-3_4

Download citation