A wide spectrum of data obtained as a result of palynological, hydrological, geological, paleontological and archaeological investigations is enabling us to reconstruct quite comprehensively and with high definition the climate changes which have occurred in the Mediterranean region during the last 10,000 years. One may start with indicators not influenced by human activity, like isotope ratios, or ancient Mediterranean and Dead Sea levels; proceed with such environmental proxy-data, as pollen time series; and then add to this archaeological and human historical data. One may thus obviate the ‘danger of arguing in circle’ which is the danger of ‘inventing climatic change to explain events in human history, which are then held to prove the occurrence of a change of climate’ (Lamb, 1982).
- Eastern Mediterranean Region
- Roman Period
- Isotope Curve
- Judean Desert
- Chalcolithic Period
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Aharoni, Y. (1986) The Land of Israel in the Late Canaanite period and the Israelite settlement period. In Y. Ripel (ed.), The History of the Land of Israel, Vol. 1, Israeli Ministry Publishing, Tel-Aviv, pp. 87–178 (in Hebrew).
Albright, W.F. (1951) Palestine during the Middle Bronze Age and the Late Bronze Age. In The Archaeology of Palestine. DAAT, Tel-Aviv, pp. 77–102 (in Hebrew).
Amiran, R. (1986) The fall of the Early Bronze Age II City of Arad. Israel Exploration Journal 36, 7476.
Amiran, R. and Kochavi, M., (1985) The Land of Israel towards the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.A separate culture or the last stage of Early Bronze Age? The Land of Israel 18, 361–365 (in Hebrew).
Avner, U., Carmi, I. and Segal, D. (manuscript). Settlement in the southern Negev from Neolithic to Bronze Age in light of radiocarbon dating.
Baruch, U. (1986) The late Holocene vegetational history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee). Israel. Paleorient. 12 (2), 37–48.
Bar Yosef, O. (1986a) The prehistoric period. In Y. Ripel (ed.), The History of the Land of Israel, Vol. 1, Israeli Defense Ministry Publishing, Tel-Aviv, pp. 1–26 (in Hebrew).
b) The walls of Jericho: An alternative interpretation. Current Anthropology 27(2), 157162.
Ben Tor, A. (1989) The Early Bronze Age. In Introduction to the Archaeology of the Land of Israel in the Biblical Times, The Open University, Tel-Aviv, pp. 11–71 (in Hebrew).
Broshi, M. and Gophna, R. (1984) The settlements of Israel and its population during the Early Bronze Age. In The Land of Israel (Braver Book), Vol. 17, pp. 147–157 (in Hebrew).
Butzer, K.W. (1958) Quaternary Stratigraphy and Climate in the Near East. Dummler, Bonn.
Carpenter, R. (1966) Discontinuity in Greek Civilization. Cambridge, The University Press.
Cohen, R. (1985) An Archaeological Survey of Israel. Sde Boker-East Map (168). Antiquity Division Publishing, Jerusalem (in Hebrew).
Cohen, R. (1989) The settlements in the Negev mountain from the 4th millennium B.C. until the 4th century B.C. Kadmoniot 83–84, 62–81 (in Hebrew).
de Vaux, R. (1971) Palestine in the Early Bronze Age. In I.E.S. Edwards, C.J. Gadd and N.G.L. Hammond (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History of the Middle East, Vol. 1(2), Cambridge: University Press, pp. 208–237.
Dever, W.G. (1980) New vistas on the `EB N-MB I’ horizon in Syria-Palestine. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 237, 31–59.
Dever, W.G. (1985) Relation between Syria-Palestine and Egypt in the `Hyksos’ period. In J.N. Tubb (ed.), Palestine in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Papers in Honour of Olga Tufnell, London: Institute of Archaeology, pp. 69–87.
Dever, W.G. (1987) The Middle Bronze Age. The zenith of the urban Canaanite Era. Biblical Archaeology 50, 149–177.
Frumkin, A., Magaritz, M., Carmi, I, and Zak, I. (1991) The Holocene climatic record of the salt caves of Mount Sedom, Israel. The Holocene 1 (3), 191–200.
Gonen, R. (1986) The Late Bronze Age. In Introduction to the Archaeology of the Land of Israel in the Biblical Times. Unit 7. The Open University, Tel-Aviv, pp. 90–169.
Gopher, A. (1981) The Prehistory of the Central Negev. The Society for Nature Protection, Sde Boker Field School (in Hebrew).
Govrin, Y. (1991) The question of the origin of early Arad’s population. In The Land of Israel. Researches in Geography and Archaeology, Vol. 21, Ruth Amiran Book. The Society for Exploring the Land of Israel and its Antiquities Publishing, pp. 107–110 (in Hebrew).
Harlan, J.R. (1982) The Garden of the Lord: A plausible reconstruction of natural resources of Southern Jordan in Early Bronze Age. Paleorient. 8 (1), 71–78.
Hennessy, B. (1967) Preliminary report on the first season of excavations at Teleilat Ghassul. Levant 1, 1–24.
Horowitz, A. (1977) The climate and the settlement in the Negev mountain during the last Quaternary. In E. Sohar (ed.), The Desert: Past, Present, Future, Reshafin Publishing, Tel-Aviv, pp. 5259 (in Hebrew).
Horowitz, A. (1980) Palynology-climate and distribution of settlements in Israel. Kadmoniot 13 (3–4), 51–52
Issar, A. (1990) Water Shall Flow from the Rock. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.
Kenyon, K.M. (1971) Archaeology in the Holy Land. New York, Norton.
Kenyon, K.M., Bottero, J. and Posener, G. (1971) Syria and Palestine c. 2160–1780 B.C. In Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd revised ed., Vol. I(2), Cambridge, Cambridge University, pp. 532–594.
Lamb, H.H. (1982) Climate, History and the Modern World. London, Methuen.
Lapp, P. ( 1970. Palestine in the Early Bronze Age. In J.A. Sanders (ed.), Near Eastern Archaeology in the 20th Century—Essays in Honor of Nelson Glueck, New York, Doubleday, pp. 101–131.
Levy, T.E. (1986) The Chalcolithic period. Biblical Archaeologist June, 83–108.
Lewis, N. ( 1948. New light on the Negev in ancient times. Palestine Exploration Quaternary 80, 102–117.
Liphschitz, N., Lev-Yadun, S. and Waisel, Y. (1981) Dendroarchaeological investigations in Israel (Masada). Israel Exploration Journal 31, 230–234.
Lowe, J.J., Gray, L.M. and Robinson, L.E. (1980) Studies in the Late Glacial of Northwest Europe. Pergamon, Oxford.
Luz, B. (1979) Palaeo-oceanography of the post-glacial eastern Mediterranean. Nature 278 (5707), 847–848.
Luz, B. (1991) Post-glacial Paleo-oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean. International Workshop on Regional Implications of Future Climate Change. Apr. 28-May 2 ( 1991 ) Ministry of Environment, Jerusalem, Israel.
Luz, B. and Perelis-Grossowicz, L. (1980) Oxygen isotopes, biostratifigraphy and recent rates of sedimentation in the Eastern Mediterranean off Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 29, 140–146.
Magaritz, M. and Kaufman, A. (1973) Changes in the isotopic composition of the East Mediterranean seawater during the Holocene. Nature 243, 462–464.
Mayerson, P. (1983) The city of Elusa in the literary sources of the fourth-sixth centuries. Israel Exploration Journal 33, 247–253.
Mazar, B. (1967) The Middle Bronze Age in the Land of Israel. Eretz Israel 8, 216–230 (in Hebrew). Mazar, E. (1990) The Iron Age I. In Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Israel in the Biblical Period, The Open University of Israel. Unit 8, pp. 11–82 (in Hebrew).
Miller, R. (1980) Water use in Syria and Palestine from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. World Archaeology 11 (3), 331–341.
Negev, A. (1979) The Nabateans in the Negev. In A. Shmueli, A. and Y. Gradus (eds.), The Land of the Negev—Man and Desert, 1, Israeli Defense Ministry Publishing, Tel-Aviv, pp. 226–269 (in Hebrew).
Neuman, J. (1985) Climatic change as a topic in the classical Greek and Roman Literature. Climatic Change 7, 441–454.
Neuman, J. and Parpola, S. (1987) Climatic change and the eleventh-tenth century eclipse of Assyria and Babylonia. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 46, 161–182.
Neumann, J. and Sigrit, R.M. (1978) Harvest dates in ancient Mesopotamia as possible indicators of climatic variations. Climatic Change 1, 239–252.
Raban, A. and Galili, E. (1985) Recent maritime archaeological research in Israel—A preliminary report. The International J. of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 14, 4321–4356.
Richard, S. (1980) Toward a consensus of opinion on the end of the Early Bronze Age in Palestine Transjordan. Bulletin of American Schools of Oriental Research 237, 5–34.
Rosen, A.M. (1986) Environmental changes and settlement at Tel Lachish, Israel. Bulletin of American Schools of Oriental Research 263, 55–60.
Rossignol-Strick, M., Nesteroff, W, Olive, P., and Vergnaud-Grazzono, C. (1982) After the Deluge: Mediterranean stagnation and sapropel formation. Nature 295, 105–110.
Schoell M. (1978) Oxygen isotope analysis on authigenic carbonates from Lake Van sediments and their possible bearing on the climate of the past 10,000 years. In E.T. Degens and Kurtman (eds.), The Geology of Lake Van, The Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, Ankara, pp. 92–97.
Stiller, M., Ehrlich, A., Pollingher, U., Baruch, U., and Kaufman, A. (1984) The Late Holocene sediments of Lake Kinneret (Israel)—A multidisciplinary study of a 5 m core. In Geological Survey of Israel, Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure, Jerusalem, pp. 83–88.
Ussishkin, D. (1986) The land of Israel during the Chalcolithic period. In Y. Ripel (ed.), The History of the Land of Israel, Vol. 1, Israel Defense Ministry Publishing, Tel-Aviv, pp. 47–60 (in Hebrew).
van Zeist, W. (1969) Reflections on prehistoric environments in the Near East. In P.J. Ucko, and G.W. Dimbleby (eds.), The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, London: Duckworth, pp. 35–46.
van Ziest, W. and Bottema, S. (1982) Vegetational history of the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East during the last 20,000 years. In Palaeoclimates, Palaeoenvironments and Human Communities in Eastern Mediterranean Region in Later Prehistory, Oxford: British Archeological Report, International Series 133, pp. 277–321.
Weiss, B. (1982) The decline of Late Bronze age civilization as a possible response to climatic change Climatic Change 4, 173–198.
Wiess, H., Coutry, M.A., Wetterstrom, W., Guichaard, F., Senior, L., Meadow, R., and Curnow, A. (1993) The genesis and collapse of third millennium north Mesopotamian civilization. Science 261, 995–1004.
Wright, G.E. (1971) The archeology of Palestine from the Neolithic through the Middle Bronze Age. Journal of the American Oriental Society 91, 276–293.
Yakir, D., Issar, A., Gat, J., Adar, E., Trimborn, P., and Lipp, J. (1994) 13C and 18O of wood from the Roman siege rampart in Masada, Israel (AD 70–73): Evidence for a less arid climate for the region. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58(16), 3535–3539.
Editors and Affiliations
© 1998 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Issar, A.S. (1998). Climate Change and History during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. In: Issar, A.S., Brown, N. (eds) Water, Environment and Society in Times of Climatic Change. Water Science and Technology Library, vol 31. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3659-6_6
Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht
Print ISBN: 978-90-481-5114-1
Online ISBN: 978-94-017-3659-6
eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive