Skip to main content

Part of the book series: NATO ASI Series ((ASDT,volume 32))

Abstract

Biotechnology is a very old technology spanning a period of over 5000 years. In the earliest phases, it was concerned primarily with fermentation processes leading to bread-making as well as to the production of alcoholic beverages and cheese. With the recognition that microorganisms and their products were responsible for such processes and the establishment of microbiology as a science towards the end of the ninteenth century, biotechnology indeed acquired a scientific character. At this point the term biotechnology encompassed:1,2

“the use of living organisms or enzymes in the technically regulated production of organic substances.”

Biotechnology has since been revolutionized by molecular biology and genetic engineering, and any modern account has to take these developments into consideration.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M., and Parker, J. (1997) Brock Biology of Microorganisms, Eighth Edition, Prentice Hall International, Inc., New Jersey.

    Google Scholar 

  2. von Schell, T., Mohr, H. (1995) Introduction, in T. von Schell and H. Mohr (eds.), Biotechnologie - Gentechnik. Eine Chance,fiirneue Industrien, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 1 - 6.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  3. Adelberg, E.A. (1960) Papers on Bacterial Genetics, Little, Brown and Company, Boston.

    Google Scholar 

  4. United Nations (1992) Convention on Biological Diversity, 5 June 1992, copy available in Internet.

    Google Scholar 

  5. United Nations (1972) Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, Reprinted in S. Wright (ed.), Preventing a Biological Arms Race, MIT Press ( 1990 ), Cambridge, Mass., pp. 370 - 376.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Meselson, M.S. (1970) Chemical and biological weapons, Scientific American 222, 15 - 25.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Thränert, O. (1992) The Biological Weapons Convention: its origin and evolution, in O. Thränert (ed.), The Verification of the Biological Weapons Convention: Problems and Perspectives, Studie Nr. 50 der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn, pp. 9 - 17.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Rosenberg, B.H. (1993) North vs. South: Politics and the Biological Weapons Convention, Politics and the Life Sciences 12, 69-77.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Chang„ A.C.Y., and Cohen, S.N. (1974) Genomic construction between bacterial species in vitro: replication and expression of Staphylococcus plasmid genes in Escherichia coli, Proceedings of the National Academy (). f . Sciences USA 71, 1030 - 1034.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Wade, N. (1980) Biological weapons and recombinant DNA, Science 208, 271.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Budianski, S. (1982) US looks to biological weapons. Military takes new interest in DNA devices, Nature 297, 615 - 616.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Wright, S. (1987) New designs for biological weapons, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 43, 43 - 46.

    Google Scholar 

  13. United Nations (1986) Final Document. The Second Review Conference of the Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, Geneva 8-26 September 1986, BWC/CONF. 11 /13.

    Google Scholar 

  14. United Nations (1991) Final Document. Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, Geneva 9-27 September 1991, BWC/CONF. III /23.

    Google Scholar 

  15. United Nations (1996) Final Document. Fourth Review Conference of the Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, Geneva 25 November - 6 December 1996, BWC/CONF. IV /9.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Dando, M.R. (1996) Article I: Scope, in G.S. Pearson and M.R. Dando (eds.) Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention. Key Points for the Fourth Review Conference, Quaker United Nations Office, Geneva, pp. 7 - 29.

    Google Scholar 

  17. United Nations (1996) Background Paper on New Scientific and Technological Developments Relevant to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, Geneva 25 November -6 December 1996, BWC/CONF.IV/4, 30 October 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Dando, M.R. (1996) New developments in biotechnology and their impact on biological warfare, in O. Thränert (ed.), Enhancing the Biological Weapons Convention, Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger GmbH, Bonn, pp. 21. 56.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Technology Group on Biotechnology and Biochemistry (1992) Technology assessments and forecasts, in Board on Army Science and Technology, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council, STAR 21. Strategic Technologies for the Army of the Twenty-first Century, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 103 - 191.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Watson, J.D., Gilman, M., Witkowski, J., Zoller, M. (1992). Recombinant DNA, second edition, Scientific American Books, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York

    Google Scholar 

  21. Freifelder, D. (1987) Microbial Genetics, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc., Boston.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Mazodier, P., Davies, J. (1991) Gene transfer between distantly related bacteria, Annual Review of Genetics 25, 147 - 171.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Schäfer, A. (1996) Horizontaler Gentransfer - Mechanismen and biologische Sicherheit, Biospektrum 2. Jahrgang, 23 - 29.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Lorenz, M.G., Wackemagel, W. (1994) Bacterial gene transfer by natural genetic transformation in the environment, Microbiological Reviews 58, 563 - 602.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Moss, B. (1985) Vaccinia virus expression vector: a new tool for immunologists, Immunology Today 6, 243 - 245.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Perkus, M.E., Piccini, A., Lipinskas, B.R., Paoletti, E. (1985) Recombinant vaccinia virus: immunization against multiple pathogens, Science 229, 981 - 984.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Restifo, N.P. (1996) The new vaccines: building viruses that elicit antitumor immunity, Current Opinion in Immunology 8, 658 - 663.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Bilang, R., Schrott, M. (1995) Plant cells, genetic manipulation of, in R.A. Meyers (ed.), Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, VCH Publishers, Inc., New York, pp. 689 - 692.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Zupan, J.R., Zambryski, P. (1995) Transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium to the plant cell, Plant Physiology 107, 1041 - 1047.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Ishida, Y., Saito, H., Ohta, S., Hiei, Y., Komari, T., Kumashiro, T. (1996) High efficiency transformation of maize (Zea mays L.) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Nature Biotechnology 14, 745 - 750.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Chang, S.-Y., Shih, A., Kwok, S. (1993) Detection of variability in natural populations of viruses by polymerase chain reaction, Methods in Enzymology 224, 428 - 438.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Amann, R.I., Ludwig, W., Schleifer, K.-H. (1995) Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation, Microbial Reviews 59, 143 - 169

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Hugenholtz, P., Pace, N.R. (1996) Identifying microbial diversity in the natural environment: a molecular phylogenetic approach, Trends in Biotechnology 14, 190 - 197.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Uhlmann, E., Peyman, A. (1995) Antisense oligonucleotides, structure and function of, in R.A. Meyers (ed.), Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, VCH Publishers, Inc., New York, pp. 38 - 45.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Richardson, J.S., Richardson, D.C. (1989) The de novo design of protein structures, Trends in Biochemical Sciences 14, 304 - 309.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Schomburg, D. (1996) Strukturbasiertes Design von Biomolekülen mit neuen Eigenschaften, BlOforum 9 /96, 350 - 354.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Smith, A.D., Arnold, E., Arnold, G.F. (1997) Protein engineering to create biologically active peptides: recombinant human rhinoviruses that display peptide sequences, Behring Institute Mitteilungen 98, 229 - 239.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Olnes, S., Pihl, A. (1982) Chimeric toxins, Pharmacology and Therapeutics 15, 355 - 381.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Poncelet, P., Blythman, H.E., Carrier, D., Casellas, P., Dussossoy, D., Gros, O., Gros, P., Jansen, F.K., Laurent, J.C., Liance, M.C., Vidal, H., Voisin, G.A. (1984) Present potential of immunotoxins, Behring Institute Mitteilungen 74, 94 - 100.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. O’Hare, M., Roberts, L.M., Thorpe, P.E., Watson, G., Prior, B., Lord, J.M. (1987) Expression of ricin A chain in Escherichia coli, Federation of European Biochemical Societies Letters 216, 7378.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Chang, M.-S., Russel, D.W., Uhr, J.W., Vitetta, E.S. (1987) Cloning and expression of recombinant, functional ricin B chain, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 84, 5640 - 5644.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Riechmann, L., Clark, M., Waldmann, H., Winter, G. (1988) Reshaping human antibodies for therapy, Nature 332, 323 - 327.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Kuby, J. (1997) Immunoglobulins: structure and function, in Immunology, Third Edition, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, pp. 107 - 142.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Köhler, G., Milstein, C. (1975) Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity, Nature 256, 495 - 497.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Bailey, J.E. (1991) Toward a science of metabolic engineering, Science 252, 1668 - 1675.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Georgiou, G. (1995) Recombinant DNA technology, Trends in Biotechnology 13, 79 - 80.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Lessard, P. (1996) Metabolic engineering: The concept coalesces, Nature Biotechnology 14, 16541655.

    Google Scholar 

  48. United Nations (1996) Procedural Report of the Ad HocGroup of the States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, Fifth session, Geneva, 16-27 September 1996, BWC/AD HOC GROUP/32, 27 September 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  49. McClarty, G. (1994) Chlamydiae and the biochemistry of intracellular parasitism, Trends in Microbiology 2. 157 - 164.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Winkler, H.H. (1995) Rickettsia prowazekii, ribosomes and slow growth, Trends in Microbiology 3, 196 - 198.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Berglund, P., Tubulekas, I., Liljeström, P. (1996) Alphaviruses as vectors for gene delivery, Trends in Biotechnology 14, 130 - 134.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Schügerl, K., Sittig, W. (1994) Bioreaktoren, in P. Präve, U. Faust, W. Sittig, D.A. Sukatsch (eds.), Handbuch der Biotechnologie, R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich, pp. 261 - 303.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Schügerl, K., Hitzmann, B., Jurgens, H., Kullick, T., Ulber, R., Weigal, B. (1996) Challenges in integrating biosensors and FIA for on-line monitoring and control, Trends in Biotechnology 14, 2131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Lee, S.Y. (1996) High cell-density culture of Escherichia coli, Trends in Biotechnology 14, 98105.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Katinger, H., Schreier, W. (1989) Mass cultivation and production of animal cells, in R.E. Spier, J.B. Griffiths (eds.), Animal Cell Biotechnology, Volume 1, Academic Press, London, pp. 167 - 193.

    Google Scholar 

  56. van Wezel, A.L. (1989) Monolayer growth systems: homogeneous unit processes, in R.E. Spier, J.B. Griffiths (eds.), Animal Cell Biotechnology, Volume 1, Academic Press, London, pp. 265 - 281.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Griffiths, J.B. (1989) Cell biology: experimental aspects, in R.E. Spier, J.B. Griffiths (eds.), Animal Cell Biotechnology, Volume 1, Academic Press, London, pp. 49 - 83.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Geißler, E. (1990) Annexe 4. Description of containment facilities and Annexe 5. Classification of infective microorganisms by risk group, in E. Geißler (ed.), Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention by Confidence-Building Measures, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 176 - 197.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Germany (1990) Gesetz zur Regelung der Gentechnik (Gentechnikgesetz - GenTG),Bonn, 1 July 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Morsy, M.A., Caskey, C.T. (1997) Safe gene vectors made simpler, Nature Biotechnology 15, 17.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Kochanek, S., Clemens, P.R., Mitani, K., Chen, H.-H., Chan, S., Caskey, C.T. (1996) A new adenoviral vector: Replacement of all viral coding sequences with 28 kb of DNA independently expressing both full-length dystrophin and (3-galactosidase, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93, 5731 - 5736.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. Strauss, J.H., Strauss, E. (1994) The alphaviruses: gene expression, replication, and evolution, Microbiological Reviews 58, 491 - 562.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Liew, F.Y. (1988) Biotechnological trends towards synthetic vaccines, Immunology Letters 19, 241 - 244.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. Stephenne, A. (1988) Recombinant versus plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccines: issues of safety, immunogenicity and cost-effectiveness, Vaccine 6, 299 - 303.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Welkos, S.L., Friedlander, A.M. (1988) Comparative safety and efficacy against Bacillus anthracis of protective antigen and live vaccines in mice, Microbial Pathogenesis 5, 127 - 139.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Kissel, T., Koneberg, R., Hilbert, A.K., Hungerren, K.-D. (1997) Microencapsulation of antigens using biodegradable polyesters: facts and phantasies, Behring Institute Mitteilungen 98, 172 - 183.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. Hancock, R.E.W., Wong, R. (1997) Potential of protein OprF of Pseudomonas in bivalent vaccines, Behring Institute Mitteilungen 98, 283 - 290.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Tzschaschel, B.D., Guzman, C., Timmis, K.N., de Lorenzo, V. (1996) An Escherichia coli hemolysin transport system-based vector for the export of polypeptides: Export of Shiga-like toxin IIeB subunit by Salmonella typhimurium aroA, Nature Biotechnology 14, 765 - 769.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Zanetti, M., Sercarz, E., Salk, J. (1987) The immunology of new generation vaccines, Immunology Today S, 18 - 25.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Dougan, G., Chatfield, S., Pickard, D., Bester, J., O’Callaghan, D., Maskell, D. (1988) Construction and characterization of vaccine strains of Salmonella harboring mutations in two different aro genes, Journal of Infectious Diseases 158, 1329 - 1335.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Levine, M.M., Galen, J., Barry, E., Noriega, F., Tacket, C., Sztein, M., Chatfield, S., Dougan, G., Losonsky, G., Kotloff, K. (1997) Attenuated Salmonella typhi and Shigella as live oral vaccines and as live vectors, Behring Institute Mitteilungen 98, 120 - 123.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. Ulmer, J.B., Sadoff, J.C., Liu, M.A. (1996) DNA vaccines, Current Opinion in Immunology 8, 53 1536.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Hassett, D.E., Whitton, J.L. (1966) DNA immunization, Trends in Microbiology 4, 307 - 312.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Towner, K.J., Cockayne, A. (1993), Molecular Methods for Microbial Identification and Typing, Chapman & Hall, London.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  75. Abbas, A.K., Lichtman, A.H., Pober, J.S. (1994) Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Second Edition, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Gatto-Menking, D.L., Yu, H., Bruno, J.G., Goode, M.T., Miller, M., Zulich, A.W. (1995) Preliminary testing and assay development for biotoxoids, viruses and bacterial spores using the ORIGEN® immunomagnetic electrochemiluminescence sensor, in Proceedings 5th International Symposium Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents: Supplement, Stockholm, Sweden, I1-16 June 1995, National Defence Research Establishment, Umea, pp. 65 - 72

    Google Scholar 

  77. Woese, C.R., Kandler, O., Wheelis, M.L. (1990) Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains archaea, bacteria and eukarya, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 87, 4576 - 4579.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Iwabe, N., Kuma. K.-I., Hasegawa, M., Osawa, S., Miyata, T. (1989) Evolutionary relationship of archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes inferred from phylogenetic trees of duplicated genes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 86, 9355 - 9359.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. Leslie, D., Phillips, T., Miller, L., Pearson, G. (1995) Gene probes for the verification of the biological and toxin weapons convention, D/ACSA(NP)/1/4 (227/95), Her Britannic Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Smith, D.R. (1996) Microbial pathogen genomes - new strategies for identifying therapeutics and vaccine targets, Trends in Biotechnology 14, 290 - 293.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. Metting, F.B., Romine, M.F. (1997) Microbial genomics: the floodgates open, Trends in Microbiology 5, 91 - 92.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. Caetano-Anolles, G. (1996) Scanning of nucleic acids by in vitro amplification: New developments and applications, Nature Biotechnology 14, 1668-1674.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Lockhart, D.J., Dong, H., Byrne, M.C., Follettie, M.T., Gallo, M.V., Chee, M.S., Mittmann, M., Wang, C., Kobayashi, M., Horton, H., Brown, E.L. (1996) Expression monitoring by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays, Nature Biotechnology 14, 1675 - 1680.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. Ferguson, J.A., Boles, T.C., Adams, C.P., Walt, D.R. (1996) A fiber-optic DNA biosensor microarray for the analysis of gene expression, Nature Biotechnology 14, 1681 - 1684.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. Holzman, D. (1995) Progress toward practical DNA-based infectious disease diagnostics, American Society for Microbiology News 61, 329 - 330.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Perkin-Elmer, ABI PRISM(tm) 7700 Sequence Detection System. http://www.perkinelmer.com/news/per07.html.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Germany (1987) Anwendung der Gentechnologie zu militärischen Zwecken, in Chancen and Risiken der Gentechnologie. Bericht der Enquete-Kommission des 10. Deutschen Bundestages, Deutscher Bundestag, Bonn, pp. 260 - 267.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Davies, J. (1994) Inactivation of antibiotics and the dissemination of resistance genes, Science 264, 375 - 264.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. Mooi, F.R., Bik, E.M. (1997) The evolution of epidemic Vibrio cholerae strains, Trends in Microbiology 5, 161 - 165.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. McMichael, A.J. (1996) HIV. The immune response, Current Opinion in Immunology 8, 537539

    Google Scholar 

  91. Smith, G.L. (1994) Virus strategies for evasion of the host response to infection, Trends in Microbiology 2, 81 - 88.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. DiRita, V.J. (1994) Multiple regulatory systems in Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis, Trends in Microbiology 2, 37 - 38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Straley, S.C., Perry, R.D. (1995) Environmental modulation of gene expression and pathogenesis in Yersinia, Trends in Microbiology 3, 310 - 317.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. Bielecki, J., Youngman, P., Connelly, P., Portnoy, D.A. (1990) Bacillus subtilis expressing a hemolysin gene from Listeria monocytogenes can grow in mamalian cells, Nature 345, 175 - 185.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. Isberg, R.R., Falkow, S. (1985) A single genetic locus encoded by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis permits invasion of cultured animal cells by Escherichia coli K-12, Nature 317, 262 - 264.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. Sansonetti, P.J., Hale, T.L., Dammin, G.J., Kapfer, C., Collins, H.H., Formal, S.B. (1983) Alterations in the pathogenicity of Escherichia coli K-12 after transfer of plasmid and chromosomal genes from Shigella flexneri, Infection and Immunity 39, 1392 - 1402.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. Falkow, S. (1989) From wimp to pathogen, American Society, for Microbiology News 55, 10.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2000 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Nixdorff, K., Brauburger, J., Hahlbohm, D. (2000). The Biotechnology Revolution: The Science and Applications. In: Dando, M.R., Pearson, G.S., Toth, T. (eds) Verification of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. NATO ASI Series, vol 32. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3643-5_3

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3643-5_3

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht

  • Print ISBN: 978-90-481-5537-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-94-017-3643-5

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive

Publish with us

Policies and ethics