The Refugees

  • Leonard Y. Andaya
Part of the Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde book series (VKIV, volume 91)


The fall of Sombaopu in 1669 was a significant event for the Makassar people. It marked not merely the end of “the war” against the Company and Arung Palakka, but also the end of an era when the name Goa was synonymous with power and supremacy. It is noteworthy that the Tallo Chronicle ends in 1641 after the death of one of its greatest rulers, while that of Goa lists rulers into the early 17th century, but has no commentary on the rulers after the death of Sultan Hasanuddin on 12 June 1670 (Abdurrahim and Wolhoff n.d.; Abdurrahim and Borahima 1975). The great period of Makassar history came to a close in 1669, and it was as if all the scribes realized this and put their pointed lontar writing instruments away. To these scribes whose task was to list the genealogies and deeds of the rulers for the edification of the royal progeny (Abdurrahim and Wolhoff n.d.:9), a defeat in war was recorded as just one of a number of events in the past. Other wars besides that of 1669 had been fought and lost by Goa but still recorded in the Chronicle. Yet the 1666-9 Makassar War, culminating in the destruction of Sombaopu, is not even mentioned.


Great Period Narrow Path Chief Minister Decisive Victory Demeaning Treatment 
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  1. 1.
    The most spectacular examples of South Sulawesi refugee successes abroad are in Malaysia. Many contemporary royal families on the Malay peninsula have Bugis blood dating from the period of Bugis involvement in the Malay world in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. See L. Y. Andaya 1975.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A similar experience of Bugis refugees in the Malay world in the early 18th century led to their settlement in a thinly populated and lightly governed territory belonging to the kingdom of Johor. This area later became the Sultanate of Selangor ruled by a Bugis dynasty. See L. Y. Andaya 1975; B. W. Andaya 1979.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    This large Malay force was part of the following of a certain Minangkabau leader who was known as Ibn Iskandar. For a discussion of his activities in the late 17th century, see Kathirithamby-Wells 1970.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    It was to this river crossing that Arung Palakka later attributed the beginning of a certain growth in his nose which was to cause him such suffering and anxiety until his death.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard Y. Andaya
    • 1
  1. 1.University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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