Road to Conflict

  • Leonard Y. Andaya
Part of the Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde book series (VKIV, volume 91)


When Sultan Hasanuddin became Karaeng Goa in 1653 and Karaeng Karunrung Tuma’bicara-butta a year later, they inherited a mighty kingdom with a flourishing international trade at Makassar. This was the legacy of their grandfathers, Sultan Alauddin Tumenanga ri Gaukanna and Karaeng Matoaya Tumammalianga ri Timoro’, and their fathers, Sultan Malikkusaid Tumenanga ri Papambatuna and Karaeng Pattinngaloang Tumenanga ri Bontobiraeng. By the third generation of this highly effective combination of Goa-Tallo rulers, the struggle for political ascendancy in South Sulawesi had ended with Goa triumphant. There seemed nothing on the horizon which could threaten the position of Goa as the leading political and economic power in the eastern half of the Indonesian archipelago. So invincible did Goa appear to any outside observer that when a large Dutch fleet with an army of several thousand men appeared a little over a decade and a half later to attack Makassar, neither the Dutch nor anyone in the Eastern Indonesian area believed that their success was assured. But Goa’s days of supremacy were coming to an end as a result of an unforeseen alliance of the Dutch East India Company and Arung Palakka and most of the Bone and Soppeng Bugis.


Secret Message Indonesian Archipelago Peaceful Settlement Private Trading Dutch East India Company 
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  1. 1.
    In a raga (a rotan ball) game, the raga is tossed in the air and kept there by the participants by using any part of the body but the hands. Skill is measured by how well and how long a participant can keep the ball in the air. Special ceremony attended the teaching of the raga game by a master (guru pa’raga),and purity of heart and mind were prerequisites for skill in this spiritual exercise/game (Abdurrachman 1967: 16-7).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    There are many ways of tying a sarung to serve different purposes. When a man ties his sarung up high so that the bottom edge touches his knees, he usually intends to do hard labour and thus does not want the sarung to hinder his movements.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The name was chosen because in the Bugis areas a raft is usually built by tying individual logs together. The word raft would conjure up the image of individual units forming one entity, hence a union or alliance.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A strip from a leaf of a lontar palm (Borassus flabelliformis) on which certain number of knots are tied to indicate the number of days before a war would begin. It is usually sent to an ally or to a vassal to summon him to war within a certain number of days. A failure to respond to these summons did not go unpunished (Matthes 1874:211).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    The term used for defy is lariangi babanâ,which means literally to run away with the whip, hence indicating an act of defiance. In another manuscript the term is clearly used to refer to a group of kingdoms rejecting Goa’s overlordship (L-17:1).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    According to Speelman’s Notitie,the Bugis were waiting with a sizeable force to meet the enemy. There were 10,000 men under Arung Palakka at Mampu, another 10,000 men under Arung Kaju, Arung Maruangen, Arung Awo, and Arung Balieng, and a further 8,000 under Arung Mario. Datu Soppeng La Tënribali brought additional men to Arung Palakka, swelling the latter’s force to about 20,000 (Speelman 1670:731r).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    This is a gesture with the left hand extended outward offering peace and the right hand placed on the hilt of the kris signifying a willingness to war if necessary (Matthes 1874: 702).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    This appears to be an early manifestation of Arung Palakka’s upé,or fortune, which attracted the direct loyalty of the Bugis people. They seemed to flock to his banner of their own accord and not as a result of orders from their local lords.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    The term used is parélléssempatua,which means the opening in the rocks. What is probably, meànt here is not actually caves, but the cracks and spaces between large boulders which can afford hiding places for a man.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    In L-3:295 Datu Mario is given the title of Karaeng Eje and Karaeng Tanete the daeng name of Leppo(?).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Literally, those who pound the rice stalks to separate the ears from the stalk.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Patarana refers to the husband of the woman who nurses a royal or noble-born child. In Bugis-Makassar society the nursemaid and her husband become a type of foster parents toward whom the child feels a strong bond, sometimes even stronger than that toward his own natural parents.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    In performing the aru,or to manngaru,a warrior jumps up with kris in hand declaring his total devotion and loyalty to his lord, often in bombastic and sometimes incomprehensible words.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    All the manuscripts say Java, but this is a general term used by the Bugis and Makassar people to indicate anything foreign. Subsequent events indicate that in the beginning Java was not their ultimate destination.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    In a manuscript from Soppeng, Arung Palakka’s words are more bitter and scathing toward Bone: I have no place to live in the land of the Bugis because the people of Bone are not sincere/firm/faithful (matétté) and no longer want to fight. And of the question of the amount of gold which Arung Palakka was able to collect for his trip to Java, this manuscript says that only twenty catties of gold was from Mario ri Wawo and none from Bone (L-3:298).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    In an unpublished manuscript of the history of Bone, the three princes mentioned are Arung Bila, Arung Appanang, and Arung Belo, not Datu Citta (Sejarah Bone n.d.: 136). The reason for the omission of Datu Citta from Bone sources may have been because of the circumstances of Datu Citta’s death in later years. Datu Citta of the Bugis sources was Arung Bakke’ Todani who was married to one of Arung Palakka’s sisters. The later rivalry between Arung Palakka and Arung Bakke’ resulted in the latter’s death under very ignoble circumstances which Arung Palakka, his descendants, and the court of Bone may have wished to forget. For the story of the rivalry and subsequent murder of Arung Bakkesee Chapter 9.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Speelman says the flight occurred in the beginning of 1661 (Speelman 1670:761v), but the Diary of the Kings of Goa and Tallo records the date as 25 December 1660 (Ligtvoet 1880:119).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    For greater detail on this incident, see Stapel 1922:74-7.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Karaeng Karunrung had returned from exile and was once again in favour in the Goa court (Stapel 1922:85).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard Y. Andaya
    • 1
  1. 1.University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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