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State and Society in South Sulawesi in the 17th Century

  • Leonard Y. Andaya
Chapter
Part of the Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde book series (VKIV, volume 91)

Abstract

Events in South Sulawesi (see Maps 1 and 2) in the 17th century can only be properly appreciated through an understanding of certain cultural features which determined the nature of political control. One of the most basic of these features is the existence of four major ethnic (suku) groups within South Sulawesi: the Bugis, Makassar, Toraja, and Mandar peoples (see Map 3). The largest group is the Bugis who occupy almost the entire eastern half and part of the western half of the southwest peninsula of Sulawesi. The Makassar people are the next largest in population and are found in the western and southern areas of the peninsula. Next in size numerically are the Sa’dan Toraja people who are found mainly in the mountain areas in the north bordering the Bugis state of Luwu in the east and Mandar in the west.1 Finally, there are the Mandar people who occupy the coastal and mountain areas of the northwestern part of the peninsula. They can be divided into two groups: those who live in the mountain settlements known collectively as the Pitu Ulunna Salo’,who are ethnically Toraja, and those who live on the coast under the title of their confederation, Pitu Babana Binanga.

Keywords

17th Century West Coast Advisory Council Oral Tradition Port City 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. 1.
    The Sa’dan Toraja belong to the South Toraja group, often referred to as Tae’ Toraja. Ethnographically, the term Toraja is used generally to refer to the non-Islamic groups living in Central and South Sulawesi and divided into the East Toraja, West Toraja, and South Toraja groups. Despite being classified as one ethnic group, there is a great diversity among these three groups in language, religion, social stratification, house-building, agriculture, weaving techniques, etc. (Nooy-Palm 1975: 53 ).Google Scholar
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    From an examination of all fragments of the I La Galigo in Europe and Indonesia, R. A. Kern estimates that this work would contain between 6,000 and 8,000 pages, making it one of the largest epic poems in world literature (Kern 1954: v).Google Scholar
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    Since there is a strong likelihood that the I La Galigo was an open-ended epic tale, one perhaps should not use a word such as end to indicate what is possibly only the last extant tale known to us. So little research has been done on collecting the tales of this epic that one should perhaps wait for more conclusive evidence before suggesting any definite concluding section of the I La Galigo. The late Haji Andi Pangerang Opu Tosinilele of Belopa, Luwu, said that his family possessed a large number of volumes of the I La Galigo prior to Kahar Muzakkar’s rebellion (1950-1963). As a result of the destruction of those years only about forty volumes remained (personal communication, April, 1975).Google Scholar
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    In the Nrrgarakértagama,the ruler of Majapahit also designates as friends only those considered to be his equal (Pigeaud 1960, III:16-9).Google Scholar
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    The Sufi doctrine was well-known among Goa court members. In 1667 Encik Amin, a scribe from the Makassar-Malay community employed in the Goa court, wrote a panegyric to the Makassar ruler and nobles which exhibited a knowledge of the kind of Sufi ideas which were associated with the Aceh Sufi mystic poets (Skinner 1963:23). Syaikh Yusuf, a 17th century Moslem saint, greatly revered by the Bugis and Makassar people, was a well-known Sufi mystic who was related to the Goa royal house (Cense 1950: 51 ).Google Scholar
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    This gracious act is often cited by pro-Wajo local historians as proof of the democratic character of Wajo society which abhorred slavery of one’s fellowman. It is tempting to see this as a later interpolation by a Wajo chronicler to urge moderation on the part of Bone rulers in the late 17th and early 18th centuries who held the fate of Wajo in their hands.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard Y. Andaya
    • 1
  1. 1.University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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