Challenge from Within

  • Leonard Y. Andaya
Part of the Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde book series (VKIV, volume 91)


Upon Arung Palakka’s triumphal return from Java, it appeared that all effective opposition to his and the Company’s supremacy in South Sulawesi had been removed. Arung Palakka was realistic enough, however, to realize that much of his success was due to his unique relationship with the Company. While occasional misunderstandings had arisen between Arung Palakka and the Dutch representatives in Fort Rotterdam, Batavia never allowed these to reach a state which would endanger their alliance. Their outward demonstration of unity of purpose impressed and overawed South Sulawesi and made their joint overlordship effective.


Open Conflict Fait Accompli Conciliatory Gesture Ultimate Loyalty Occasional Misunderstanding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. 1.
    The map was finally completed in 1693 and is listed in the map collection of the General State Archives in The Hague as Leupe 1293.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. A. Cense notes that on his mother’s side Syaikh Yusuf would have been the brother of Karaeng Bisei Sultan Mohammad Ali (reign dates 1674–7) and Sultan Abdul Jalil (r.d. 1677–1709). However, Cense finds this difficult to accept since Karaeng Bisei was born in 1654, Sultan Abdul Jalil in 1652, and Syaikh Yusuf c. 1626 (Cense 1950: 51–2). It is interesting, nevertheless, that this relationship was openly acknowledged by Sultan Abdul Jalil himself in 1691. A contemporary Dutch report dated 13 January 1690 states bluntly that Syaikh Yusuf was from “a family of gallarang, although from the lowest type” (Consideratiën 1708: 7 ).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    However, a village tale of a later date dealing with the Makassar War of 1666–9 transforms this defeatism and exudes a striking optimism among the Makassar common people (Andaya 1980 ). The process of selective memory, which is a mechanism of survival and adaptation in many non-literate and semi-literate societies, had also occurred in Makassar society sometime between 1695 and 1936, when the village tale was first recorded. For a discussion of the selective memory process and its function in non-literate and semi-literate societies, see Goody and Watt 1968: 30–4.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    There is nothing in the sources which implicates the ruler of Dompu, but apparently some new evidence must have come to light to incriminate the formerly trustworthy ally of the Company and Arung Palakka.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    From the curious reference here of the Arung Tanete Matoa and the Arung Tanete Malolo being among Arung Palakka’s chief advisers, it appears that perhaps these were the titles used interchangeably during Arung Palakka’s reign with Tomarilaléng Matoa and Tomarilaléng Malolo. The former’s task was to serve as the mediator between the ruler and the Aruppitu while the latter’s principal preoccupation was with the continuing good relations between the ruler and the vassal areas. A Bugis manuscript recopied in the 20th century but of a much earlier period mentions the Tomarilaléng Matoa and Tomarilaléng Malolo during a militâry campaign in the late 17th century (L-1:77–8). Another possibility is that the Arung Tanete Malolo and Arung Tanete Matoa may refer to two members of the Aruppitu: the Arung Tanete Riatang and the Arung Tanete Riawang, or the Arung Tanete of the South and the Arung Tanete of the North. There is no indication, however, that one was designated “young” (malolo) and the other “old” (matoa).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    This was the son born of the marriage between La Patau and I Mariama, daughter of Sultan Abdul Jalil of Goa. According to the terms agreed upon by both parties in the marriage, the first born would rule in the kingdom of the mother. Tosappewali, therefore, became the crown-prince of Goa, hence the comment that he was appointed to the same office as Arung Palakka, which was the Bone title for crown prince to the Bone throne. After 1672, when Arung Palakka La Tënritatta became Arumpone, he began to be referred to in Dutch sources as “Arumpone”. The title “Arung Palakka” is retained throughout this work to refer to La Ténritatta to avoid confusion.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moirras“ is probably ”Morees“, one of the categories of cotton cloth woven on the Coromandel Coast. The traditional centre of manufacture was Masulipatnam. This cloth was usually of excellent quality and in great demand in Europe.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    See footnote 3, Chapter IV.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    The ceremony itself is called the aru,and kanjar (kannjara’ in Makassar), simply refers to the performance of the aru,that is the dancing and swearing with drawn swords and krisses.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    For example, Arung Teko did the kanjar for himself and for Tanete as the Karaeng Tanete, a title he had inherited through marriage.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Van Thije must be referring to the Toraja since this description accords much more with what we know of Toraja ceremonial dress than that of the people of Wajo.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tatabuang is found more in Ambon and is properly a set of twelve or more copper cymbals (van der Crab 1878:464). What is meant here is simply various metal instruments which are struck together to make music or to ward off evil spirits, depending upon the purpose of the ceremony.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    These “clarinets” are known as pui-pui,a single reed instrument.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    It was important that the music be played continuously while the oath is being delivered, all of which contribute to a hypnotic and frenetic atmosphere. While watching a modern-day version of a kanjar performed at a royal wedding in Maros in March 1973, I was told that there have been incidents of a person in the midst of a kanjar running amok because the music had stopped, causing him sill’.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    The Dutch reads “de gelubde of schandjongens van Goa” (KA 1458i:62). What is most likely meant here is the bissu,who were pre-Islamic religious figures who continued to perform their functions even after the coming of Islam. The male bissu frequently exhibited female traits and are often homosexuals. There is no evidence that these male bissu were ever castrated, and so the more figurative meaning was probably intended by van Thije.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    In his own diary Arung Palakka records this one fact carefully under the date 26 March 1695 where he says that he sent a gold chain weighing three catties [48 taels] to the govern and (L-31:58v).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard Y. Andaya
    • 1
  1. 1.University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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