Evolution of the caddisfly genus Ceraclea in Africa; implications for the age of Leptoceridae (Trichoptera)
A cladistic phylogeny is hypothesized for the African Ceraclea subgenus Pseudoleptocerus based on morphological characters of adults. The distributions of modern species are included on the cladogram to determine the probable distributions of the various ancestors. The resulting scenario of dispersals and vicariances is outlined to demonstrate the likely origin, age, and intracontinental evolution of the subgenus. Supporting data for the theory of plate tectonics, coupled with this understanding of the evolution of the subgenus, provides evidence that it and its leptocerid ancestors are at least 65 million years old.
KeywordsRift Valley Male Genitalia Historical Biogeography Chironomid Midge Genital Chamber
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