Many agroforestry systems are found in places that otherwise would be appropriate for natural forests, and often have replaced them. Humans have had a profound influence on forests virtually everywhere they both are found. Thus ‘natural’ defined as ‘without human influence’ is a hypothetical construct, though one that has assumed mythological value among many conservationists. Biodiversity is a forest value that does not carry a market price. It is the foundation, however, upon which productive systems depend. The relationship between agroforestry and the wild biodiversity contained in more natural forests is a complicated one, depending on the composition of the agroforestry system itself and the way it is managed. Complex forest gardens are more supportive of biodiversity than monocrop systems, shade coffee more than sun coffee, and systems using native plants tend to be more biologically diverse. Nonnative plants, especially potentially invasive alien species, threaten biodiversity and need to be avoided. The relationship between forests, agroforestry and wild biodiversity can be made most productive through applying adaptive management approaches that incorporate ongoing research and monitoring in order to feed information back into the management system. Maintaining diversity in approaches to management of agroforestry systems will provide humanity with the widest range of options for adapting to changing conditions. Clear government policy frameworks are needed that support alliances among the many interest groups involved in forest biodiversity.
- Invasive species
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Alavalapati J.R.R. Shrestha R.K., Stainback G.A. and Matta J.R. 2004. Agroforestry development: An environmental economic perspective (This volume).
Audric J. 1972. Ankor and the Khmer Empire. Robert Hale, London, 207 pp.
Behan R.W. 1975. Forestry and the end of innocence. American Forester 81: 16–19.
Boyden S. 1992. Biohistory: The Interplay Between Human Society and the Biosphere. UNESCO and Parthenon Publishing Group, Paris, 265 pp.
Campbell J. 1985. Myths to Live By. Grenada Publishing, London, 276 pp.
Conklin H. 1954. An ethnoecological approach to shifting cultivation. Trans New York Acad Science 17: 133–142.
Cook S.F. 1949. Soil Erosion and Population in Central Mexico. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Darlington C.D. 1969. The Evolution of Man and Society. Simon and Shuster, New York, 753 pp.
Denevan W. M. 1992a. The Native Population of the Americas in 1492 ( second edition ). University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 353 pp.
Denevan W. M. 1992b. The pristine myth: The landscape of the Americas in 1492. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82 (3): 369–385.
Ferguson B., Vandemeer J., Morales H. and Griffith D. 2003. Post-agricultural successional in El Peten, Guatemala. Conserv Biol 17: 818–828.
Flannery T. 1994. The Future Eaters: An Ecological History Of The Australasian Lands And People. Reed Books, Port Melbourne, 432 pp.
Flannery T. 2001. The Eternal Frontier: An Ecological History of North America and its Peoples. The Text Publishing Company, Melbourne, 368 pp.
Garcia-Fernandez C., Casado M. and Ruiz Perez M. 2003. Benzoin gardens in north Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of management on tree diversity. Conserv Biol 17: 829–836.
Gardner B.L. 2002. American Agriculture in the 20th Century: How it Flourished and What it Cost. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, 480 pp.
Geertz C. 1963. Agricultural Involution. University of California Press, Berkeley CA, 176 pp.
Gomez-Pompa A. and Kaus A. 1992. Taming the wilderness myth. BioScience 42: 271–279.
Harmon D. and Putney A.D. (eds) 2003. The Full Value of Parks: From Economics to the Intangible. Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, Md, 360 pp.
Heckenberger M. J., Kuikuro A., Kuikuro, U.T., Russell J.C., Schmidt M., Fausto C., Franchett B. 2003. Amazonia 1492: Pristine forest or cultural parkland? Science 301: 1710–1714.
Hoerr W. 1993. The concept of naturalness in environmental discourse. Natural Areas Journal 13 (1): 29–32.
Hoffecker J.F., Powers W.R. and Goebel T. 1993. The colonization of Beringia and the peopling of the New World. Science 259: 46–53.
Holling C.S. (ed.) 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. John Wiley, New York, 576 pp.
Jung C.G. 1964. Man and His Symbols. Doubleday, New York. 432 pp.
Koch N.E. and Kennedy J.J. 1991. Multiple-use forestry for social values. Ambio 20: 330–333.
Kunstadter P. 1970. Subsistence agricultural economics of Lua and Karen hill farmers of Mae Sariang District, Northern Thailand. In: Balankura B. (ed.), International Seminar on Shifting Cul-tivation and Economic Development in Northern Thailand. Land Development Department, Bangkok, Thailand, 432 pp.
Lewis H.T. and Ferguson T.A. 1988. Yards, corridors and mosaics: How to burn a boreal forest. Hum Ecol 16: 57–78.
Mancall P.C. 1991. Valley of Opportunity: Economic Culture along the Upper Susquehanna, 1700–1800. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 253 pp.
Marjokopri A. and Ruokolainen K. 2003. The role of traditional forest gardens in the conservation of tree species in West Kali-mantan, Indonesia. Biodivers Conserv 12: 799–822.
Martin P.S. and Klein R.G. (eds) 1984. Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. University of Arizona Press, Phoenix, 892 pp.
McNeely J.A. 1987. How dams and wildlife can coexist: Nat-ural habitats, agriculture, and major water resource development projects in Tropical Asia. Conserv Biol 1: 228–238.
McNeely J.A. 1994. Lessons from the past: Forests and biodiversity. Biodivers Conser 3: 3–20.
McNeely J.A. 1999. Mobilizing Broader Support for Asia’s Biod-iversity: How Civil Society Can Contribute to Protected Area Management. Asian Development Bank, Manila, 248 pp.
McNeely J.A., Mooney H.A., Neville L., Schei P. and Wagge J. (eds). 2001. A Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 50 pp.
McNeely J.A. and Scherr S. 2003. Ecoagriculture: Strategies to Feed the World and Save Wild Biodiversity. Island Press, Washington D.C., 323 pp.
Miller K.R. 1996. Balancing the Scales: Guidelines for Increas-ing Biodiversity’s Chances Through Bioregional Management. World Resources Institute, Washington D.C., 73 pp.
Myers N., Mittermeier R., Mittermeier C., Fonseca G. and Kent J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 842–843.
Nef J.U. 1977. An early energy crisis and its consequences. Sci Am 237 (5): 140–151.
O’Hara S.L., Street-Perott F.A. and Bert T.P. 1993. Accelerated soil erosion around a Mexican highland lake caused by pre-Hispanic agriculture. Nature 362: 48–51.
Perlin J. 1989. A Forest Journey: The Role of Wood in the Development of Civilization. W.W. Norton, New York, 445 pp.
Perrings C., Williamson M. and Dalmazzonej S. (eds) 2002. The Economics of Biological Invasions. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK, 249 pp.
Petit L. and Petit D. 2003. Evaluating the importance of human-modified lands for Neotropical bird conservation. Conserv Biol 17 (3): 687–694.
Piperno D.R., Ranere A., Holst I. and Hansell P. 2000. Starch grains reveal early root crop horticulture in the Panamanian tropical forest. Nature 407: 894–897.
Poffenberger M. 1990. Keepers of the Forest: Land Management Alternatives in Southeast Asia. Kumarian Press, West Hartford, 256 pp.
Pollard E. (ed.) 1994. Oxford Paperback Dictionary (Fourth Edi-tion). Oxford University Press, London, 938 pp.
Ponting C. 1992. A Green History of the World: The Environment and the Collapse of Great Civilizations. St. Martin’s Press, New York, 432 pp.
Posey D.A. 1982. The Keepers of the Forest. Garden 6: 18–24.
Pyne S.J. 1982. Fire in America: A Cultural History of Wild Land and Rural Fire. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Rappaport R.A. 1971. The flow of energy in an agricultural society. Sci Am 225 (3): 116–132.
Raven-Hart R. 1981. Ceylon: History in Stone. Lakehouse Invest-ments, Ltd., Colombo, Sri Lanka, 343 pp.
Richardson D. M. 1999. Commercial forestry and agroforestry as sources of invasive alien trees and shrubs. pp. 237–257. In: Sand-lund, O.T., Schei P.J. and Viken A. (eds), Invasive Species and Biodiversity Management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Richter D.D. and Markewitz D. 2001. Understanding Soil Change: Soil Sustainability over Millennia, Centuries, and Decades. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 272 pp.
Roosevelt H.C. (ed.) 1994. Amazonian Indians: From Prehistory to the Present. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 420 pp.
Salafsky N., Cauley H., Balachander G., Cordes B., Parks J., Margolvis C., Bhatt S., Encarnacion C., Russell D. and Mar-golis R. 2001. A systematic test of an enterprise strategy for community-based biodiversity conservation. Conserv Biol 15: 1585–1595.
Schnitger F.M. 1964. Forgotten Kingdoms in Sumatra. E.J. Brill, Leiden, 228 pp.
Siebert S.F. 2002. From shade-to sun-grown perennial crops in Su-lawesi, Indonesia: Implications for biodiversity conservation and soil fertility. Biodivers Conserv 11: 1889–1902.
Solheim W.G. 1972. An earlier agricultural revolution. Sci Am 266 (4): 34–41.
Sondaar P.Y. 1977. Insularity and its affect on mammal evolution. pp. 671–707. In: Hecht M.K., Goody R.C. and Hecht B.M. (eds), Major Patterns in Vertebrate Evolution. Plenum, New York.
Spencer J.E. 1966. Shifting Cultivation in Southeast Asia. Univer-sity of California Press, Berkeley CA, 247 pp.
Sprugel D.G. 1991. Disturbance, Equilibrium and Environmental Variability: What is ‘natural’ vegetation in a changing environ-ment? Biol Conserv 58: 1–18.
Suzuki D. and Knudtson P. 1992. Wisdom of the Elders. Bantam Books, 320 pp.
Szaro R. and Johnston D.W. 1996. Biodiversity in Managed Land-scapes: Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 808 pp.
Taylor P.W. 1986. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 329 pp.
Turner B.L. and Butzer K.W. 1992. The Colombian encounter and land-use change. Environment. October: 16–44.
Wharton C.H. 1968. Man, Fire, and Wild Cattle in Southeast Asia. Proc. Ann. Tall Timbers Fire Ecol. Conf. 8: 107–167.
Whitmore T.M., Turner B.L., Johnston D.L., Kats R.W. and Gott-scheng T.R. 1990. Long-term population change. pp. 25–39. In: Turner B.L. (ed.), The Earth as Transformed by Human Action. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
Wittenberg R. and Cock M. (eds) 2001. Invasive Alien Species: A Tool Kit of Best Prevention and Management Practices. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 228 pp.
Wunder S. 2000. The Economics of Deforestation: The Example of Ecuador. MacMillan Press, New York, 256 pp.
Editors and Affiliations
Rights and permissions
© 2004 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
McNeely, J.A. (2004). Nature vs. nurture: managing relationships between forests, agroforestry and wild biodiversity. In: Nair, P.K.R., Rao, M.R., Buck, L.E. (eds) New Vistas in Agroforestry. Advances in Agroforestry, vol 1. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-2424-1_11
Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht
Print ISBN: 978-90-481-6673-2
Online ISBN: 978-94-017-2424-1
eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive