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Sensory and Memory Information in the Control of Dexterous Manipulation

  • R. S. Johansson
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASID, volume 85)

Abstract

Successful manipulation requires that the subject selects the appropriate pattern of motor commands based on the manipulative intent, on various constraints imposed by the task and on the relevant physical properties of the manipulated object(s). For instance, most tasks require that we stabilize the object within our grasp as we move the object or use it as a tool. To prevent slips and accidental loss of the object we apply adequately large forces normal to the grip surfaces (‘grip’ forces) in relation to destabilizing forces tangential to the grip surfaces (‘load’ forces). At the same time, excessive grip forces must be avoided because they cause unnecessary fatigue and may crush fragile objects or injure the hand. Accordingly, the term grasp stability entails a prevention of accidental slips as well as of excessive fingertip forces. Various types of constraints are imposed by the object. For instance, its location in space and its size and shape may influence the selected grasp configuration (for review of grasp classification schemes see [1]), whereas its friction in relation to the skin, weight and mass distribution and possible external forces imposed on the object determines primarily the magnitudes of the forces generated by the muscles.

Keywords

Grip Force Load Force Experimental Brain Research Precision Grip Slip Ratio 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. S. Johansson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden

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