Forms of Knowledge in Mathematics and Mathematics Education: Philosophical and Rhetorical Perspectives



New forms of mathematical knowledge are growing in importance for mathematics and education, including tacit knowledge; knowledge of particulars, language and rhetoric in mathematics. These developments also include a recognition of the philosophical import of the social context of mathematics, and are part of the diminished domination of the field by absolutist philosophies. From an epistemological perspective, all knowledge must have a warrant and it is argued in the paper that tacit knowledge is validated by public performance and demonstration. This enables a parallel to be drawn between the justification of knowledge, and the assessment of learning. An important factor in the warranting of knowledge is the means of communicating it convincingly in written form, i.e., the rhetoric of mathematics. Skemp’s concept of ‘logical understanding’ anticipates the significance of tacit rhetorical knowledge in school mathematics. School mathematics has a range of rhetorical styles, and when one is used appropriately it indicates to the teacher the level of a student’s understanding. The paper highlights the import of attending to rhetoric and the range of rhetorical styles in school mathematics, and the need for explicit instruction in the area.


Tacit Knowledge Mathematical Knowledge School Mathematics Mathematical Proof Mathematical Task 
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of ExeterExeter, DevonUK

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