Advertisement

Benefits of GRACE and GOCE to Sea Level Studies

  • Philip L. Woodworth
  • Jonathan M. Gregory
Part of the Space Sciences Series of ISSI book series (SSSI, volume 17)

Abstract

The recently published Third Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have underlined the scientific interest in, and practical importance of, pasi and potential future sea level changes. Space gravity missions will provide major benefits to the understanding of the past, and, thereby, in the prediction of future. sea level changes in many ways. The proposal for the GOCE mission described well the improvements to be expected from improved gravity field and geoid models in oceanography (for example, in the measurement of the time-averaged, or ‘steady state’, ocean surface circulation and better estimation of ocean transports). in geophysics (in the improvement of geodynamic models for vertical land movements), in geodesy (in positioning of tide gauge data into the same reference frame as altimeter data. and in improvement of altimeter satellite orbits), and possibly in glaciology (in improved knowledge of bedrock topography and ice sheet mass fluxes). GRACE will make many important steps towards these ‘steady state’ aims. However, its main purpose is the provision of oceanographic (and hydrological and meteorological) temporally-varying gravity information, and should in effect function as a glohal ‘bottom pressure recorder’, providing further insight into the 3-D temporal variation of the ocean circulation, and of the global water budget in general. This paper summaries several of these issues, pointing the way towards improved accuracy of prediction of future sea level change.

Keywords

Tide Gauge Geoid Model Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Tide Gauge Record Terrestrial Water Storage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Balmino. G., R, Rummel. P. Visser. and P. Woodworth: 1999. ‘Gravity Field and Steady-Slate Ocean Circulation Mission. Reports for assessment: the four candidate Earth Explorer Core Missions’. European Space Agency Rcport SP-1233(l). 2l7pp.Google Scholar
  2. Bingley, R.M.. AFt. Dodson. NT. Pcnna. F.N. Teferle, and T,F, Baker: 20(11. Monitoring the vertical land movemeni component of changes in mean sea level using GPS: results from tide gauges in the UK’. Journal of Geosparial Engineering. 3. 9–20.Google Scholar
  3. Cabanes, C,. A. Cazenave, and C. Le Provost: 2001. ‘Sea level rise during past 40 years dctcrmincd from satellite and in situ observations’, Science. 294. 840–842.Google Scholar
  4. Cazenave. A.. L. Soudarin. J-E Cretaux. and C. Le Provost: 1999. ‘Sea level changes from TopexPoseidon altimetry and (ide gauges. and vertical cmstal motions from DORIS’. Geophysical Resea,rh Leners. 26. 2077–2080.Google Scholar
  5. Church. iA.. J.M. Gregory. P. Huybrechs. M. Kuhn. K. Lambeck. MT. Nhuan, ft Qin. And P.L. Woodworth: 2001, ‘Changes in sea level’. In: iT. Houghton. Y. Ding. Di. Griggs. M. Noguer. P.L. Van Der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskcll. and CA. Johnson (eds.): Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report ol’ the Intergovemmenial Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge: Camhridge University Press. pp. 639–693.Google Scholar
  6. Di Donato. G. A.M. Negredo. R. Sahadini, and LL.A. Vermeersen: 1999. ‘Multiple proccsscs causing sea-level rise in the central Mediterranean’. Geophysical Research Letten. 26. 1769–1772.Google Scholar
  7. Douglas. B.C. and W.R. Peltier: 2002. ‘The puzzle of global sea-level rise’. Physics Today. 55 (3). 35–40.Google Scholar
  8. Ganachaud. A., C. Wunsch. M.-C. Kim. and B. Tapley: 1997. ‘Combination of TOPEX/Poseidon data with a hydrographic inversion for determination of ihe oceanic general circulation’, Geophysical Journal International. 128. 708–722.Google Scholar
  9. GRACE, 1998. ‘Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment science and mission requirements document’. Revision A. JPLI)-15928. NASA’s Earth System Science Pathfinder Program.Google Scholar
  10. Gregory, J.M.. IA. Church. G.J. Boer. K.W. Dixon, G.M. Flato. DR. Jackett, IA. Lowe. S.R O’Farrell, B. Roeckner, G.L. Russell, R.J. Stouffer. and M. Winton: 2001. ‘Comparison of results from several AOGCMs for global and regional sea-level change 1990–2100’. Climate D-vnamics. 18. 225–240.Google Scholar
  11. Le Grand. R and i-F. Minster: 1999. impact of the GOCE gravity mission on ocean circulation estimates’, Geophysical Research Letters. 26. 1881–1884.Google Scholar
  12. Le Grand. P.: 2001. ‘Impact of the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) mission on ocean circulation estimates. Volume fluxes in a climatological inverse model of the Atlantic’. Journal of Geophysical Research. 106. 19597–19610.Google Scholar
  13. Mitehum. G.T.. R. Cheney. L.-L. Fu, C. Le Provost. Y. Mcnard, and P. Woodworth: 2001, ‘The future of sea surface height observations’. In: C.J. Koblinsky and N.R. Smith (eds.): Oceans in the 2/st Century. Melbourne. Australia: Bureau of Meteorology. pp. 120–136.Google Scholar
  14. NRC, 1997, ‘Satellite gravity and geosphcre’. Washington. D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  15. Peltier. W,R.: 21)01. W,R.: 21)01, ‘Global glacial isostatic adjustment’. in: B.C. l)ouglas. MS. Kearney. and S.P. Leatherman (eds.): Sea level rise: history and consequences, San i)iego: Academic Press.. pp. 65–95.Google Scholar
  16. Plag. H-P. and H-U. Juttner: 2001. ‘inversion of global tide gauge data for present-day ice load changes’. In: T. Yamanouchi (cdi: Prnceedings of the Second international Symposium on Envirannientol Research in the Arctic and Fifth Nv-A lesund Scientific Se,ninaç Memoirs of the National institute of Polar Research, Special Issue No. 54, 30l–337.Google Scholar
  17. Raper. S.C.B.. J.M. Gregory. and R.J. StouFfer: 2002, ‘The role of climate sensitivity and ocean heat uptake on AOGCM transient temperature response’. Journal of Climate. 15. 124–130.Google Scholar
  18. Sehrbter. i.. M. Losch. and B. Sloyan: 2002. ‘impact of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission on ocean circulation estimates 2. Volume and heat fluxes across hydrographic sections of unequally spaced stations’. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107. 10.1 02912000JC000641.Google Scholar
  19. Tamisiea, ME.. ix. Mitrovica. GA. Mime, and iL. Davis: 2001, ‘Global geoid and sea level changes due to present-day icc niass fluctuations’,.Jaurnal of Geophysical Research. 106, 30849–30863.Google Scholar
  20. Williams. S.D.!’.. T.F. Baker. and G. Jeffries: 2001. ‘Absolute gravity measurements at UK tide gauges’. Geophysical Research Letters. 28. 2317–2320.Google Scholar
  21. Woodworth, RL.: 1991. ‘The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level and the Global Sea Level Observing System’. Journal of Coastal Research. 7, 699–710.Google Scholar
  22. Woodwonh. P.L., MN. Tsimplis. R.A. Flather. and I. Shennan: 1999. ‘A review of the trends observed in British isles mean sea level data measured by tide gauges’. Geophysical Journal international, 136. 651–670.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip L. Woodworth
    • 1
  • Jonathan M. Gregory
    • 2
  1. 1.Proudman Oceanographic LaboratoryBidston ObservatoryBirkenheadUK
  2. 2.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and ResearchBracknellUK

Personalised recommendations