Clinical Aspects and Diagnostic Criteria of Sporadic CAA-Related Hemorrhage

  • Steven M. Greenberg


Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a major cause of hemorrhagic stroke in the elderly, including hemorrhages that occur with anticoagulant treatment. Though fundamentally a neuropathologic diagnosis, CAA can be identified with good reliability during life by the presence on gradient-echo MRI of multiple, strictly lobar hemorrhages without other definite cause. The relatively good recovery from a first CAA-related hemorrhage is counterbalanced by the tendency for these hemorrhages to recur at approximately 10% per year. Higher rates of recurrence are predicted by a history of previous hemorrhage and the presence of the apolipoprotein E ɛ2 and ɛ4 alleles. Improving tools for the diagnosis and staging of CAA, together with an emerging understanding of β-amyloid deposition and toxicity, form a strong foundation for future trials aimed at prevention of hemorrhage recurrence.


Intracerebral Hemorrhage Cerebral Hemorrhage Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Central Nervous System Vasculitis Vascular Amyloid 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven M. Greenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyMassachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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