Electrolyzed Reduced Water Induces Differentiation in K-562 Human Leukemia Cells
Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) is known to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is related to malignant tumor phenotypes. We attempted to clarify the effect of ERW on tumor phenotypes of K562 human leukemia cells. Treatment of K562 cells with ERW resulted in growth arrest, morphological changes, and expression of CD41, a cell marker of megakaryocyte differentiation. However, the morphology of N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-treated cells was rather similar to that of non-treated control K562 cells. These results suggested that ERW, but not NAC can differentiate K562 cells into megakaryocytes. The induction of megakaryocytes from K562 cells by ERW was preceded by a rapid rise in the activity of MEK (MAP kinase /extra-cellular regulated kinases) that leads to sustained activation of ERK (extra-cellular regulated kinases; MAPK). However, In NAC-treated K562 cells, ERK activation was only transient. The different persistency of ERK activation induced by ERW and NAC might affect the cell fate.
KeywordsTitanium EDTA DMSO Tyrosine Leukemia
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