Advertisement

Mechanical Methods of Preparing Fossil Specimens

  • Owen R. Green
Chapter

Abstract

Preparation of material by mechanical methods employs a variety of tools to assist in the stock removal of matrix. Most of the techniques illustrated are applied to macrofossil material, although, with care and patience, they can equally be used in the preparation of some microfossil specimens (Berdan 1989). Furthermore, the techniques are not mutually exclusive, and can be used in association with chemical and thermal disintegration procedures. Mechanical cleaning procedures used in the preparation of individual micropalaeontological specimens (e.g. Martinsson 1965), are discussed in a later section (see 32 SPECIALIST TECHNIQUES USED IN MICROPALAEONTOLOGY). The mechanical extraction of fossils in the field is outlined in part II FIELD TECHNIQUES.

Keywords

Cleaning Solution Polyvinyl Butyral Work Chamber Hand Piece Mechanical Preparation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ANONYMOUS. 1986. Bransonic ultrasonic cleaner, operator’s manual. Branson Europa, Netherlands. 80 p.Google Scholar
  2. BASSLER, R. S. 1953. Techniques, pp G16–G21: In; R. C. Moore (ed), Bryozoa, Part G of Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  3. BERDAN, J. M. 1989. Mechanical extraction of microfossils, pp 99–100; In: R. M. Feldman, R. E. Chapman and J. T. Hannibal (eds), Paleotechniques. The Paleontological Society Special Publication. 4. iv + 358.Google Scholar
  4. BRUTON, T. 1974. Pneumatic hand tools. Newsletter of the Geological Curators Group. 1, (2), 70–72.Google Scholar
  5. CHANEY, D. S. 1989a. Hand-held mechanical preparation tools, pp 186–203; In: R. M. Feldman, R. E. Chapman and J. T. Hannibal (eds), Paleotechniques. The Paleontological Society Special Publication. 4. iv + 358.Google Scholar
  6. FELDMAN, R. M, CHAPMAN, R. E and HANNIBAL, J. T. (Eds). 1989. Paleotechniques. The Paleontological Society Special Publication. 4. iv + 358.Google Scholar
  7. GIPSON, Jr, M. 1963. Ultrasonic disaggregation of shale. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. 33, (4), 955–958.Google Scholar
  8. GRAY, J. 1965b. Extraction techniques, pp 530–587: In; B. Kummel and D. Raup (eds), Handbook of Paleontological Techniques. W. H. Freeman and Co, ( San Francisco). xiii + 852 p.Google Scholar
  9. GUNTHER, L. F, GUNTHER, V. G and RIGBY, J. K. 1979. An economic miniature sandblaster for preparation of fossils. Journal of Paleontology. 53, (2), 506–507.Google Scholar
  10. HANNIBAL, J. T. 1989. The air-abrasive technique, pp 227–236; In: R. M. Feldman, R. E. Chapman and J. T. Hannibal (eds), Paleotechniques. The Paleontological Society Special Publication. 4. iv + 358.Google Scholar
  11. HANNIBAL, J. T, WILLIAMS, M. E and JACKSON, G. L. 1988. An inexpensive source of dolomite powder for use with airbrassive units. Journal of Paleontology. 62, (2), 316.Google Scholar
  12. HODGKINSON, R. L. 1991. Microfossil processing: a damage report. Micropaleontology. 37, (3), 320–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. HOWIE, F. M. P. 1979a. Physical conservation of fossils in existing collections. Newsletter of the Geological Curators Group. 2, (5), 269–280.Google Scholar
  14. JONES, M. D. 1969. A pneumatic power-tool for the palaeontologist. Museum Assistance Group Newsletter, March.Google Scholar
  15. LÖRCHER, F and KELLER, T. 1985 (for 1984 ). Preparation techniques for material from the Posidonienschiefer (Lias Epsilon, Upper Liassic) of Germany. The Geological Curator. 4, (3), 164–168.Google Scholar
  16. MARTINSSON, A. 1965. Preparation of individual microfossils on cellulose acetate films, pp 247–251: In; B. Kummel and D. Raup (eds), Handbook of Paleontological Techniques. W. H. Freeman and Co., ( San Francisco). xiii + 852 p.Google Scholar
  17. PALMER, A. R. 1989. Techniques for mechanical extraction of smaller fossils, pp 208–212; In: R. M. Feldman, R. E. Chapman and J. T. Hannibal (eds), Paleotechniques. The Paleontological Society Special Publication. 4. iv + 358.Google Scholar
  18. POJETA, Jr., J and BALANC, M. 1989a. Uses of ultrasonic cleaners in Paleontological laboratories, pp 213–217; In: R. M. Feldman, R. E. Chapman and J. T. Hannibal (eds), Paleotechniques. The Paleontological Society Special Publication. 4. iv + 358.Google Scholar
  19. RASETTI, F. 1947. Notes on techniques in invertebrate paleontology. Journal of Paleontology. 21, (4), 397–399.Google Scholar
  20. RIXON, A. E. 1976. Chapter 4, Mechanical development, pp 59–83; In: Fossil Animal Remains, their preparation and conservation. Athlone Press, ( London). viii + 304 p.Google Scholar
  21. ROBISON, R. A. 1965. Use of the Vibro-tool for mechanical preparation of fossils, pp 267–270: In; B. Kummel and D. Raup (eds), Handbook of Paleontological Techniques. W. H. Freeman and Co., ( San Francisco). xiii + 852 p.Google Scholar
  22. SOHL, N. F. 1989. Mechanical extraction of fossils extraction by hammers, chisels, and picks, pp 204–207; In: R. M. Feldman, R. E. Chapman and J. T. Hannibal (eds), Paleotechniques. The Paleontological Society Special Publication No. 4. iv + 358.Google Scholar
  23. SOHN, I. G. 1960. Cleaning ostracode valves with ultrasonic vibrations. (Abstract only). Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 71, 1982.Google Scholar
  24. STEVENS, C. H, JONES, D. H and TODD, R. G. 1960. Ultrasonic vibrations as a cleaning agent for fossils. Journal of Paleontology. 34, (4), 727–730.Google Scholar
  25. STUCKER, G. F. 1961. Salvaging fossils by jet. Curator. 4, (4), 332–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. STUCKER, G. F, GALUSHA, M. J and MCKENNA, M. C. 1965. Removing matrix from fossils by miniature sandblasting, pp 273–274: In; B. Kummel and D. Raup (eds), Handbook of Paleontological Techniques. W. H. Freeman and Co., ( San Francisco). xiii + 852 p.Google Scholar
  27. WHYBROW, P. J. 1978. Fibre optics and foot operated microscope control equipment to assist in the preparation of fossils. Newsletter of the Geological Curators Group. 2, (3), 141–143.Google Scholar
  28. WILSON, J. 1987. Approaches to the preparation and development of calcareous fossils from calcareous matrices, pp 447–450; In: P. R. Crowther and C. J. Collins (eds), The Conservation of Geological Material. The Geological Curator. 4, (7), 375–474.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Owen R. Green 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Owen R. Green
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of OxfordHolt, NorfolkUK

Personalised recommendations