Stratospheric ozone depletion, UV exposure and skin cancer: a scenario analysis
There is overwhelming evidence, discussed elsewhere in this book, that exposure of the skin to UV-radiation can lead to, or at least contribute to, the development of skin cancer. The sun is the major source of UV-radiation to which the human skin is exposed. Within the earth’s atmosphere, ozone serves as a partly protective shield by absorbing most of the effective part of the UV-spectrum and thus preventing a major part of the harmful UV from reaching the earth’s surface. Depletion of atmospheric ozone has been observed over large parts of the globe in recent decades, and it was predicted that harmful UV-radiation levels at the earth’s surface would have increased. The observed decrease in ozone was thought to be related to the large-scale emissions of halocarbon compounds as a result of human activity . In 1985, in view of the scientific evidence that the emission of halocarbon compounds could lead to ozone depletion, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) initiated the Vienna Convention to protect the ozone layer. This provided the framework for the discussion and implementation of international restrictions on the production of ozone depleting substances and led to the first international agreement on the reduction of the production of ozone depleting substances in 1987 in the Montreal Protocol. Following scientific evidence that ozone depletion was actually occurring, the Montreal Protocol was strengthened in several later Amendments.
Key wordsozone depletion UV-radiation skin cancer risk assessment Vienna Convention to protect the ozone layer
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.World Meteorological Organization (1998) Scientific assessment of ozone depletion. Global Ozone and Monitoring Project, Report No 44. WMO.Google Scholar
- 3.United Nations Environment Programme (1998) Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1998 Assessment. ISBN 92–807–1724–3.Google Scholar
- 4.CIAP (1975) CIAP Monograph series, Vols. 1–6, Grobecker AJ (Ed. in chf), Washington DC: Climate Impact Assessment Program, Department of TransportationGoogle Scholar
- 7.European Commission (2001) European research in the stratosphere 1996–2000, advances in our understanding of the ozone layer during THESEO, EUR 19867, ISBN 92–894–1398–0, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
- 8.Kelfkens G, Bregman A, de Gruijl FR et al. (2002) Ozone Layer – climate change interactions: Influence on UV levels and UV related effects. Dutch National Research Program on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change, OCCUR–project (950303), Report 410–200–112, ISBN 90–5851–079–4, RIVM, Bilthoven.Google Scholar
- 9.Bais AF, Gardiner BG, Slaper H, et al. (2001) SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers. J Geophys Res 106 (D12): 12, 509–12, 526.Google Scholar
- 10.Kjeldstad B, Johnsen B, Koskela T, eds. (1997) The NORDIC intercomparison of ultraviolet and total ozone instruments at Izana. October 1996, Final Report, Meteorological Publications 36, Helsinki: FMI, ISBN 951–697–475–9.Google Scholar
- 12.De Gruijl FR, Van der Leun JC (1994) Estimate of the wavelength dependency of ultraviolet carcinogenesis in humans and its relevance to the risk assessment of a stratospheric ozone depletion. Health Phys. 67: 314–325.Google Scholar
- 13.Slaper H, Matthijsen J, den Outer PN, Velders GJM (2001) Climatology of ultraviolet budgets using earth observation (CUBEO): mapping UV from the perspective of risk assessments. Netherlands Remote Sensing Board (BCRS)_USP–2 report 00–17, ISBN 90–54–11–32–6.Google Scholar
- 14.Kelfkens G, den Outer PN, Slaper H (2001) Risks and ultraviolet budgets using earth observation (RUBEO): including a non–standard atmosphere and geographic ozone trend differences in risk assessments. Netherlands Remote Sensing Board (BCRS)_USP–2 report 01–33, ISBN 90–54–11–378–2.Google Scholar
- 21.Longstreth JD, De Gruijl FR, Kripke ML, Takizawa Y, Van der Leun JC (1995) Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on human health. Ambio 24: 153–165.Google Scholar