Coalescence of Nanoscale Islands during Polycrystalline Thin Film Growth

  • Max O. Bloomfield
  • Yeon Ho Im
  • Hanchen Huang
  • Timothy S. Cale
Conference paper
Part of the Solid Mechanics and Its Applications book series (SMIA, volume 114)


We describe a simulation framework designed to track individual grains in a material during simulations of their formation and processing. The framework employs a “grain continuum” model of films [Cale et al., Comp. Mat. Sci. 23 (3), (2002)] and can be used to complement discrete atomistic simulations, and link their results to continuum simulations. We demonstrate the use of multiplelevelset methods to track islands nucleated on substrates, during growth and impingement to form polycrystalline films. We briefly discuss how this simulation tool might be used in an integrated multiscale process simulation environment [Bloomfield et al., Electrochem. Soc. PV2001–24, pp.77–84, 2001] to establish a link from atomistic simulations upward to feature, pattern, and reactor scale simulations.

Key words

grain structure computer simulation level set methods multiscale 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    L.C. Seah, S. Mridha, and L. Chan, J. Vac. Sei. Technol.1.(5), 2362(1999).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Besser, E. Zschech, W. Blum, D. Winter, R. Ortega, S. Rose, M. Herrick, M. Gall, S. Thrasher, M. Tiner, B. Baker, G. Braeckelmann, et al., J. of Electron. Mat. 3. (4), 320 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Fischer, A. von Glashow, A. Huot, and R. Schwarzer, in Advanced Metallization Conference 1999 (AMC 1999., edited by M. Gross, T. Gessner, N. Kobayashi, and Y. Yasuda (Mater.Res. Soc, Warrendale, PA, USA, 1999), pp. 137–141.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    V. Dubin, C. Thomas, N. Baxter, C. Block, V. Chikarmane, P. McGregor, D. Jentz, K. Hong, S. Hearne, C. Zhi, D. Zierath, B. Miner, et al, in Proc. IEEE 2001 Intl. Interconnect Tech. Con. (IEEE, Piscataway. NJ, 2001), pp. 271–273.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y. Morand, Microelectron. Eng. 5. (1–4), 391 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Russo and P. Smereka, SIAMJ. Sei. Comput. 2. (6), 2073 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Osher and J. Sethian, J. Comp. Phy. 7., 12 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. A. Sethian, Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Method., no. 3 in Cambridge Monographs on Applied and Computational Mathematics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999), 2nd ed.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T J. Barth and J.A. Sethian, J. Comp. Phy. 14. (1), 1 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.F. Richards, M.O. Bloomfield, S. Sen, and T.S. Cale, J. Vac. Sei. Technol. 1. (4), 1630(2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.O. Bloomfield, D.F. Richards, and T.S. Cale, submitted to Philosophical Magazine A. Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.K. Gobbert, C.A. Ringhofer, and T.S. Cale, J. Electrochem. Soc. 14. (8), 2624 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M.K. Gobbert, T.P. Merchant, L.J. Borucki, and T.S. Cale, J. Electrochem. Soc. 14. (11), 3945 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.O. Bloomfield, K.E. Jansen, and T.S. Cale, in Morphological Evolution in Electrodeposition and Electrochemical Processing in VLSI Fabrication I., edited by P. C. Allongue, P.C. Andricacos, F. Argoul, D. P. Barkey, J. C. Bradley, K. Kondo, P. C. Searson, C. Reidsma-Simpson, J. L. Stickney, and G. M. Oleszek, vol. PV 2001–8, Electrochem. Soc. 2001.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M.K. Gobbert and C.A. Ringhofer, SIAMJ. Appl. Mat. 5. (3), 737 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.O. Bloomfield, S. Sen, and T. S. Cale, in Thin Film Materials, Processes, and Reliability in Microelectronic., edited by G. S. Mathad, M. Yang, M. Engelhardt, H.S. Rathore, B.C. Baker, and R.L. Opila, vol. PV 2001–24, Electrochem. Soc, pp. 77–84, 2001.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    T.S. Cale, M.O. Bloomfield, D.F. Richards, K.E. Jansen, J.A. Tichy, and M.K. Gobbert, Comp. Mat. Sei. 2., 3 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W.-T. Tseng, C.-H. Lo, and S.-C. Lee, J. Electrochem. Soc. 14. (5), C327 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    W.-T. Tseng, C.-H. Lo, and S.-C. Lee, J. Electrochem. Soc. 14. (5), C333 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    MeshSim 3.1 from Simmetrix, Inc., Scholar
  21. 21.
    T.P. Merchant, M.K. Gobbert, T.S. Cale, and L.J. Borucki, Thin Solid Film. 36. (2), 368 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Max O. Bloomfield
    • 1
  • Yeon Ho Im
    • 1
  • Hanchen Huang
    • 2
  • Timothy S. Cale
    • 1
  1. 1.Rensselaer: Interconnections for Gigascale IntegrationFocus Center - New YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear EngineeringRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA

Personalised recommendations