GRB Opening Angle & Space Density Distribution Determined from the GRB Intensity Distribution

  • J. R. Lin
  • S. N. Zhang
  • T. P. Li
Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 298)


Recent research results indicate that long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced at cosmological distances and the produced radiation may be constrained mostly in narrow beams. In this paper we determine the gamma-ray burst opening angle and space density distribution directly from the observed GRB intensity distribution. The determined GRB opening angle distribution is consistent with an exponential distribution with a mean opening angle of about 0.03 radian. The determined GRB space density follows the star formation rate until z = 1 but continues to increase monotonically up to at least z = 11.7, suggesting that either the actual star formation rate should peak at significantly higher z than believed previously, or GRBs do not follow the star formation rate for z > 1. The existence of the lower-bound z = 0.28 ± 0.04 for GRB production indicates absence or a much lower rate of massive star formation at the present time.


GRB opening angle space density of GRBs 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. R. Lin
    • 1
  • S. N. Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • T. P. Li
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Tsinghua Center for AstrophysicsTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Physics DepartmentUniversity of Alabama in HuntsvilleHuntsvilleUSA
  3. 3.Space Science LaboratoryNASA Marshall Space Flight CenterHuntsvilleUSA
  4. 4.Institute of High Energy PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.Institute of High Energy PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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