Improving Human Health and Physical Capabilities

  • L. Parsons
  • J. Watson
  • Patricia Connolly
  • Michael J. Heller
  • Jeffrey Bonadio
  • Peter C. Johnson
  • Jack M. Loomis
  • Britton Chance
  • Kyung A. Kang
  • Edgar Garcia-Rill
  • Gregor Wolbring
  • Rodolfo R. Llinás
  • Valeri A. Makarov
  • Miguel A. L. Nicolelis
  • Mandayam A. Srinivasan
  • Abraham Phillip Lee
  • Larry Cauller
  • Andy Penz
  • Alan T. Pope
  • Olafur S. Poisson
  • U. Calgary
  • R. Golledge


The second NBIC theme is concerned with means to strengthen the physical or biological capabilities of individuals. The panel’s work dovetailed with that of the first panel in the area of human cognition, especially the exciting and challenging field of brain performance. The brain,after all, is an organ of the human body and is the physical basis for that dynamic system of memory and cognition we call the mind. An extremely complex brain is the feature of human biology that distinguishes us from other animals, but all the other tissues and organs of the body are also essential to our existence and overall performance, and they thus deserve close scientific and technological attention.


Disable People Deaf People Physical Capability Sensory Gating Sensory Substitution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Gazzaniga, M.S., ed. 1995. The cognitive neurosciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  2. Dario, P., M.C. Carozza, A. Benvenuto, A. Menciassi. 2000. Micro-systems in biomedical applications. J. Micromech. Microeng. 10: 235–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Douglas, J.T., and D.T. Curiel. 1998. Gene therapy for inherited, inflammatory and infectious diseases of the lung. Medscape Pulmonary Medicine 2, 3.Google Scholar
  4. EIA (Energy Information Administration, U.S. Dept. of Energy). 1998. Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. energy markets and economic activity. Report No. SR/OIAF/98–03.Google Scholar
  5. Greenberg, R.J. 2000. Visual prostheses: A review. Neuromodulation, 3 (3): 161–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Harris, W.H. 1995. The problem is osteolysis. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 311: 46–53.Google Scholar
  7. Hartgerink, J.D., E. Beniah, and S.I. Stupp. 2001. Self-assembly and mineralization of peptide-amphiphile nanofibers. Science 294: 1684–1688 (November).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hu, W-S., and V.K. Pathak. 2000. Design of retroviral vectors and helper cells for gene therapy. Pharmacological Reviews 52: 493–511.Google Scholar
  9. Khan, Z.P., R.T. Spychal, and J.S. Pooni. 1997. The high-risk surgical patient. Surgical Technology International 9: 153–166 (Universal Medical Press).Google Scholar
  10. Langer, R. 1999. Selected advances in drug delivery and tissue engineering. J. of Controlled Release, 62: 7–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Moore, A. 2001. Brave small world. EMBO Reports, 2(2): 86–89. ( European Molecular Biology Organisation, Oxford University Press ).Google Scholar
  12. Pickup, J. 1999. Technological advances in diabetes care. Wellcome News Supplement Q3 (S).Google Scholar
  13. UK Foresight Consultation Document. 1999. The aging population. ( Weerasinghe, A., and K.M. Taylor. 1998. The platelet in cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann. Thorac. Surg, 66: 2145–52.Google Scholar
  14. WHO (World Health Organization). 2000. 1997–1999 World Health Statistics Annual. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  15. WHO. 1998a. The World Health Report 1998, Life in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision for All 1998, ISBN 92 4 156189 0Google Scholar
  16. WHO. 1998b. WHO Fact Sheet No. 94, Malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  17. WHO. 2001. Methodology for assessment of environmental burden of disease. ISEE session on environmental burden of disease. Report of a WHO Consultation (WHO/SDE/WSH/00. 7 ). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  18. Hill, A.V.S. 1996. Genetics of infectious disease resistance. Opinion in Genetics and Development 6: 348–53.Google Scholar
  19. Chorney, M.J., et al. 1998. A quantitative trait locus associated with cognitive ability in children. Psychological Science 9: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Corder, E.H. et al. 1994. Protective effect of apolipoprotein E type 2 allele for late onset Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Genetics 7: 180–84Google Scholar
  21. Dubnau, J. and T. Tully. 1998. Gene discovery in drosophilia: New insights for learning and memory. Annual Review of Neuroscience 21: 407–44.Google Scholar
  22. Jorde, L.B., J.C. Carey, M.J. Bamshed, and R.L. White. 2000. Medical genetics. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.Google Scholar
  23. Kamboh, M.I. 1995. Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms and susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease. Human Biology 67: 195–215.Google Scholar
  24. Marmot, M.G., et al., 1991. Health inequalities among British civil servants: The Whitehall H study. Lancet 337: 1387–93.Google Scholar
  25. Ridley, M. 2000. Genome: The autobiography of a species in 23 chapters. New York: PrenniallHarper Collins.Google Scholar
  26. Wexler, N. 1992. Clairvoyance and caution: Repercussions from the Human Genome Project. In The code of codes. D. Kevles and L. Hood, eds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Auricchio, A., Hildinger, M., O’Connor, E., Gao, G.P., and Wilson, J.M. 2001. Isolation of highly infectious and pure adeno-associated virus type 2 vectors with a single-step gravity-flow column. Hum. Gene Ther. 12: 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ballas, Z.K., Rasmussen, W.L., and Krieg, A.M. 1996. Induction of NK activity in murine and human cells by CpG motifs in oligodeoxynucleotides and bacterial DNA. J. Immunol. 157: 1840.Google Scholar
  29. Bonadio, J. 2000. Tissue engineering via local gene delivery: Update and future prospects for enhancing the technology. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 44: 185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brown, E.J., Albers, M.W., Shin, T.B., Ichikawa, K., Keith, C.T., Lane, W.S., and Schreiber, S.L. 1994. A mammalian protein targeted by G1-arresting rapamycin-receptor complex. Nature 369: 756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davidson, B.L., Stein, C.S., Heth, J.A., Martins, I., Kotin, R.M., Derksen, T.A., Zabner, J., Ghodsi, A., Chiorini J.A. 2000. Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2,4, and 5 vectors: transduction of variant cell types and regions in the mammalian central nervous system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97: 3428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Deng, G-M., Nilsson, I-M., Verdrengh, M., Collins, L.V., and Tarkowski, A. 1999. Intraarticularly localized bacterial DNA containing CpG motifs induces arthritis. Nature Med. 5: 702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dry, S., McCarthy, S., and Harris, T. 2001. Structural genomics in the biotechnology sector. Nat. Biotechnol. 29: 946.Google Scholar
  34. Evans, W.E., and Relling, M.V. 1999. Pharmacogenomics: translation functional genomics into rational therapeutics. Science 286: 487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Feigner, P.L., Barenholz, Y., Behr, J.P., Cheng, S.H., Cullis, P., Huang, L., Jessee, J.A., Seymour, L., Szoka, F., Thierry, A.R., Wagner, E., and Wu, G. 1997. Nomenclature for synthetic gene delivery systems. Hum. Gene Ther. 8: 511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fields, S. 2001. Proteomics in genomeland. Science 291: 1221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hernandez, Y.J., et al. 1999. Latent adeno-associated virus infection elicits humoral but not cell-mediated immune responses in a nonhuman primate model. J. Virol. 73: 8549.Google Scholar
  38. Herzog, R.W., Hagstron, J.N., Kung, S-H., Tai, S.J., Wilson, J.M., Fisher, K.J., and High, K.A. 1997. Stable gene transfer and expression of human blood coagulation factor IX after intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94: 5804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Herzog, R.W., Yang, E.Y., Couto, L.B., Hagstron, J.N., Elwell, D., Fields, P.A., Burton, M., Bellinger, D.A., Read, M.S., Brinkhous, K.M., Podsakoff, G.M., Nichols, T.C., Kurtzman, G.J., and High, K.A. 1999. Long-term correction of canine hemophilia B by gene transfer of blood coagulation factor IX mediated by adeno-associated viral vector. Nature Med. 5: 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hol, W.G.J. 2000. Structural genomics for science and society. Nat. Structural Biol. 7 Supp1: 964.Google Scholar
  41. Ideker, T., Galitski, T., and Hood, L. 2001. A new approach to decoding life: systems biology. Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet. 2: 343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jooss, K., Yang, Y., Fisher, K.J., and Wilson, J.M. 1998. Transduction of dendritic cells by DNA viral vectors directs the immune response to transgene products in muscle fibers. J. Virol. 72: 4212.Google Scholar
  43. Kay, M.A., Glorioso, J.C., and Naldini, L. 2001. Viral vectors for gene therapy: the art of turning infectious agents into vehicles of therapeutics. Nature Med. 7: 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kay, M.A., Manno, C.S., Ragni, M.V., Larson, P.J., Couto, L.B., McClelland, A., Glader, B., Chew, A.J., Tai, S.J., Herzog, R.W., Arruda, V., Johnson, F., Scallan, C., Skarsgard, E., Flake, A.W., and High, K.A. 2000. Evidence for gene transfer and expression of factor IX in haemophilia B patients treated with an AAV vector. Nature Genet. 24: 257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Klinman, D.M., Yi, A.K., Beucage, S.L., Conover, J., and Krieg, A.M. 1996. CpG motifs present in bacterial DNA rapidly induce lymphocytes to secrete interleukin 6, interleukin 12, and interferon gamma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93: 2879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kozarsky, K.F., and Wilson, J.M. 1993. Gene therapy: adenovirus vectors. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 3: 499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. MacBeath, G., and Schreiber, S.L. 2000. Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination. Science 289: 1673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. MacColl, G., Bunn, C., Goldspink, G., Bouloux, P., and Gorecki, D.C. 2001. Intramuscular plasmid DNA injection can accelerate autoimmune responses. Gene Ther. 8: 1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Magari, S.R., Rivera, V.M., Iuliucci, J.D., Gilman, M., and Cerasoli, F. 1997. Pharmacologic control of a humanized gene therapy system implanted into nude mice. J. Clin. Invest. 100: 2865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mahalati, K., and Kahan, B.D. 2001. Clinical pharmacokinetics of sirolimus. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 40: 573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Malik, A.K., Monahan, P.E., Allen, D.L., Chen, B.G., Samulski, R.J., and Kurachi, K. 2000. Kinetics of recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer. J. Virol. 74: 3555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McKeown, T. 1988. The origins of human disease. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell Ltd., pp. 1–233.Google Scholar
  53. Meyer, U.A., and Zanger, U.M. 1997. Molecular mechanisms of genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolism. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 37: 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Miller, D.G., Adam, M.A., and Miller, A.D. 1990. Gene Transfer by retrovirus vectors occurs only in cells that are actively replicating at the time of infection. Mol. Cell Biol. 10: 4239.Google Scholar
  55. Monahan, P.E., and Samulski, R.J. 2000. AAV vectors: is clinical success on the horizon? Gene Ther. 7: 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nateson, S., Molinari, E., Rivera, V.M., Rickles, R.J., and Gilman, M. 1999. A general strategy to enhance the potency of chimeric transcriptional activators. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96: 13898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Payette, P.J., Weeratna, R.D., McCluskie, M.J., and Davis, H.L. 2001. Immune-mediated destruction of transfected myocytes following DNA vaccination occurs via multiple mechanisms. Gene Ther. 8: 1395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pollock, R., Issner, R., Zoller, K., Natesan, S., Rivera, V.M., and Clackson, T. 2000. Delivery of a stringent dimerizer-regulated gene expression system in a single retroviral vector. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 13221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rando, T.A., and Blau, H.M. 1994. Primary mouse myoblast purification, characterization, and transplantation for cell-mediated gene therapy. J. Cell Biol. 125: 1275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rivera, V.M., Clackson, T., Natesan, S., Pollock, R., Amara, J.F., Keenan, T., Magari, S.R., Phillips, T., Courage, N.L., Cerasoli, F. Jr., Holt, D.A., and Gilman, M. 1996. A humanized system for pharmacologic control of gene expression. Nat. Med. 2: 1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rivera, V.M., Wang, X., Wardwell, S., Courage, N.L., Volchuk, A., Keenan, T., Holt, D.A., Gilman, M., Orci, L., Cerasoli, F. Jr., Rothman, J.E., and Clackson, T. 2000. Regulation of protein secretion through controlled aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Science 287: 826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rivera, V.M., Ye, X., Courage, N.L., Sachar, J., Cerasoli, F. Jr., Wilson, J.M., and Gilman, M. 1999. Long-term regulated expression of growth hormone in mice after intramuscular gene transfer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96: 8657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Roe, T., Reynolds, T.C., Yu, G., and Brown, P.O. 1993. Integration of murine leukemia virus DNA depends on mitosis. EMBO J. 12: 2099.Google Scholar
  64. Ross-Macdonald, P., Coelho, P.S., Roemer, T., Agarwal, S., Kumar, A., Jansen, R., Cheung, K.H., Sheehan, A., Symoniatis, D., Umansky, L., Heidtman, M., Nelson, F.K., Iwasaki, H., Hager, K., Gerstein, M., Miller, P., Roeder, G.S., and Snyder, M. 1999. Large-scale analysis of the yeast genome by transposon tagging and gene disruption. Nature 402: 362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Russell, R.B., and Eggleston, D.S. 2000. New roles for structure in biology and drug discovery. Nat. Structural Biol. 7 Supp1: 928.Google Scholar
  66. Somia, N., and Verma, I.M. 2000. Gene therapy: trials and tribulations. Nature Rev. Genetics 1: 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sporn, M.B. 1999. Microbes Infect. TGF-beta: 20 years and counting. 1: 1251.Google Scholar
  68. Standaert, R.F., Galat, A., Verdine, G.L., and Schreiber, S.L. 1990. Molecular cloning and overexpression of the human FK506-binding protein FKBP. Nature 346: 671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Strausberg, R.L., and Riggins, G.J. Navigating the human transcriptome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98: 1 1837.Google Scholar
  70. Velculescu, V.E., Vogelstein, B., and Kinzler, K.W. 2000. Analyzing uncharted transcriptomes with SAGE. Trends Genet. 16: 423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wilson, J.F., Weale, M.E., Smith, A.C., Gratrix, F., Fletcher, B., Thomas, M.G., Bradman, N., and Goldstein, D.B. 2001. Population genetic structure of variable drug response. Nat. Biotechnol. 29: 265.Google Scholar
  72. Xiao, X., Li, J., and Samulski, R.J. 1996. Efficient long-term gene transfer into muscle tissue of immunocompetent mice by adeno-associated virus vector. J. Virol. 70: 8098.Google Scholar
  73. Yang, Y., Li, Q., Ertl, H.C., and Wilson, J.M. 1995. Cellular and humoral immune responses to viral antigens create barriers to lung-directed gene therapy with recombinant adenoviruses. J. Virol. 69: 2004.Google Scholar
  74. Ye, X., Rivera, V.M., Zoltick, P., Cerasoli, F. Jr., Schnell, M.A., Gao, G., Hughes, J.V., Gilman, M., and Wilson J.M. 1999. Regulated delivery of therapeutic proteins after in vivo somatic cell gene transfer. Science 283: 88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. D’Trends, Inc. West, J.L., and N.J. Halas. 2000. Applications of nanotechnology to biotechnology commentary, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 11(2):215–7 (Apr.).Google Scholar
  76. Abravanel, E. 1971. Active detection of solid-shape information by touch and vision. Perception and Psychophysics, 10, 358–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Bach-y-Rita, P. 1967. Sensory plasticity: Applications to a vision substitution system. Acta Neurologica Scandanavica, 43, 417–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Bach-y-Rita, P. 1972. Brain mechanisms in sensory substitution. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  79. Bliss, J.C., M.H. Katcher, C.H. Rogers, and R.P. Shepard. 1970. Optical-to-tactile image conversion for the blind. IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems, MMS-11, 58–65.Google Scholar
  80. Brabyn, J.A. 1985. A review of mobility aids and means of assessment. In Electronic spatial sensing for the blind, D.H. Warren and E.R. Strelow, eds. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  81. Cohen, L.G., P. Celnik, A. Pascual-Leone, B. Corwell, L. Faiz, J. Dambrosia, M. Honda, N. Sadato, C. Gerloff, M.D. Catala, and M. Hallett. 1997. Functional relevance of crossmodal plasticity in blind humans. Nature, 389: 180–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Collins, C.C. 1985. On mobility aids for the blind. In Electronic spatial sensing for the blind, D.H. Warren and E.R. Strelow, eds. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  83. Crandall, W., W. Gerrey, and A. Alden. 1993. Remote signage and its implications to print-handicapped travelers. Proceedings: Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America RESNA Annual Conference, Las Vegas, June 12–17, 1993, pp. 251–253.Google Scholar
  84. Davidson, P.W., S. Abbott, and J. Gershenfeld. 1974. Influence of exploration time on haptic and visual matching of complex shape. Perception and Psychophysics, 15: 539–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Driver, J., and C. Spence. 1999. Cross-modal links in spatial attention. In Attention, space, and action: Studies in cognitive neuroscience, G.W. Humphreys and J. Duncan, eds. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Ernst, M.O. and M.S. Banks. 2002. Humans integrate visual and haptic information in a statistically optimal fashion. Nature 415: 429–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ernst, M.O., M.S. Banks, and H.H. Buelthoff. 2000. Touch can change visual slant perception. Nature Neuroscience 3: 69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Golledge, R.G. 2002. Spatial cognition and converging technologies. This volume.Google Scholar
  89. Harrison, J., and S. Baron-Cohen. 1997. Synaesthesia: An introduction. In Synaesthesia: Classic and contemporary readings, S. Baron-Cohen and J.E. Harrison eds. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  90. Heller, M.A., J.A. Calcaterra, S.L. Green, and L. Brown. 1999. Intersensory conflict between vision and touch: The response modality dominates when precise, attention-riveting judgments are required. Perception and Psychophysics 61: 1384–1398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Humayun, M.S., and E.T. de Juan, Jr. 1998. Artificial vision. Eye 12: 605–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jaffe, D.L. 1994. Evolution of mechanical fingerspelling hands for people who are deaf-blind. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 3: 236–244.Google Scholar
  93. Kay, L. 1985. Sensory aids to spatial perception for blind persons: Their design and evaluation. In Electronic spatial sensing for the blind, D.H. Warren and E.R. Strelow, eds. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  94. Keller, H. 1908. The world I live in. New York: The Century Co.Google Scholar
  95. Klatzky, R.L., J.M. Loomis, S.J. Lederman, H. Wake, and N. Fujita. 1993. Haptic perception of objects and their depictions. Perception and Psychophysics 54: 170–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kurzweil, R. 1989. Beyond pattern recognition. Byte 14: 277.Google Scholar
  97. Lakatos, S., and L.E. Marks. 1999. Haptic form perception: Relative salience of local and global features. Perception and Psychophysics 61: 895–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Loomis, J.M. 1990. A model of character recognition and legibility. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16: 106–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Loomis, J.M., R.G. Golledge, and R.L. Klatzky. 2001. GPS-based navigation systems for the visually impaired. In Fundamentals of wearable computers and augmented reality, W. Barfield and T. Caudell, eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  100. Loomis, J.M., R.L. Klatzky, and S.J. Lederman. 1991. Similarity of tactual and visual picture perception with limited field of view. Perception 20: 167–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Loomis, J.M., and S.J. Lederman. 1986. Tactual perception. In K. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. Thomas (Eds.), Handbook of perception and human performance: Vol. 2. Cognitive processes and performance (pp. 31.1–31. 41 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  102. Loomis, J.M., Y. Lippa, R.L. Klatzky, and R.G. Golledge. 2002. Spatial updating of locations specified by 3-D sound and spatial language. J. of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 28: 335–345.Google Scholar
  103. Loughborough, W. 1979. Talking lights. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 73: 243.Google Scholar
  104. Martino, G., and L.E. Marks. 2000. Cross-modal interaction between vision and touch: The role of synesthetic correspondence. Perception 29: 745–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Martino, G., and L.E. Marks. 2001. Synesthesia: Strong and weak. Current Directions in Psychological Science 10: 61–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Massaro, D.W., and M.M. Cohen. 2000. Tests of auditory-visual integration efficiency within the framework of the fuzzy logical model of perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 108: 784–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Meijer, P.B.L. 1992. An experimental system for auditory image representations. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 39: 112–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Neville, H.J., D. Bavelier, D. Corina, J. Rauschecker, A. Karni, A. Lalwani, A. Braun, V. Clark, P. Jezzard, and R. Turner. 1998. Cerebral organization for language in deaf and hearing subjects: Biological constraints and effects of experience. Neuroimaging of Human Brain Function, May 29–31, 1997, Irvine, CA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95: 922–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Newell, F.N., M.O. Ernst, B.S. Tjan, and H.H. Buelthoff. 2001. Viewpoint dependence in visual and haptic object recognition. Psychological Science 12: 37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Niparko, J.K. 2000. Cochlear implants: Principles and practices. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  111. Normann, R.A. 1995. Visual neuroprosthetics: Functional vision for the blind. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine 77–83.Google Scholar
  112. Pavel, M., G. Sperling, T. Riedl, and A. Vanderbeek. 1987. Limits of visual communication: The effect of signal-to-noise ratio on the intelligibility of American Sign Language. Journal of the Optical Society of America, A 4: 2355–2365.Google Scholar
  113. Reed, C.M., L.A. Delhorne, N.I. Durlach, and S.D. Fischer. 1990. A study of the tactual and visual reception of fingerspelling. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 33: 786–797.Google Scholar
  114. Reed, C.M., W.M. Rabinowitz, N.I. Durlach, L.A. Delhorne, L.D. Braida, J.C. Pemberton, B.D. Mulcahey, and D.L. Washington. 1992. Analytic study of the Tadoma method: Improving performance through the use of supplementary tactual displays. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 35: 450–465.Google Scholar
  115. Sadato, N., A. Pascual-Leone, J. Grafman, V. Ibanez, M-P Deiber, G. Dold, and M. Hallett. 1996. Activation of the primary visual cortex by Braille reading in blind subjects. Nature 380: 526–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tan, H.Z., W.M. Rabinowitz, and N.I. Durlach. 1989. Analysis of a synthetic Tadoma system as a multidimensional tactile display. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 86: 981–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Valvo, A. 1971. Sight restoration after long-term blindness: the problems and behavior patterns of visual rehabilitation, L L. Clark and Z.Z. Jastrzembska, eds.. New York, American Foundation for the Blind.Google Scholar
  118. Waltzman, S.B., and N.L. Cohen. 2000. Cochlear implants. New York: Thieme.Google Scholar
  119. Weisenberger, J.M., S.M. Broadstone, and F.A. Saunders. 1989. Evaluation of two multichannel tactile aids for the hearing impaired. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 86: 1764–1775.Google Scholar
  120. Welch, R.B., and D.H. Warren. 1980. Immediate perceptual response to intersensory discrepancy. Psychological Bulletin 88: 638–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Chance, B., Anday, E., Nioka, S., Zhou, S., Hong, L., Worden, K., Li, C., Overtsky, Y., Pidikiti, D., and Thomas, R., 1998. “A Novel Method for Fast Imaging of Brain Function, Noninvasively, with Light.” Optical Express, 2 (10): 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Chance, B., Kang, K.A., and Sevick, E., 1993. “Photon Diffusion in Breast and Brain: Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Optics and Photonics News, 9–13. 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Chance, B., Zhuang, Z., Chu, U., Alter, C., and Lipton, L., 1993. “Cognition Activated Low Frequency Modulation of Light Absorption in Human Brain,” PNAS, 90: 2660–2774.Google Scholar
  124. Gratton, G., Corballis, M., Cho, E., Gabiani, M., and Hood, D.C., 1995. “Shades of Gray Matter: Non-invasiveNoninvasive Optical Images of Human Brain Responses during Visual Stimulations,” Psychophysiology, 32: 505–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Heekeren, H.R., Wenzel, R., Obrig, H., Ruben, J., Ndayisaba, J-P., Luo, Q., Dale, A., Nioka, S., Kohl, M., Dirnagl, U., Villringer, A., and Chance, B., 1997. “Towards Noninvasive Optical Human Brain Mapping–Improvements of the Spectral, Temporal, and Spatial Resolution of Near-infrared Spectroscopy,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue: Theory, Instrumentation, Model, and Human Studies, II, Chance, B., Alfano, R., eds., Proc. SPIE, 2979: 847–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Hoshi, Y., Watanabe, Y., Andersson, J., X, X, Langstom, B., and X, 1994. “Non-synchronous Behavior of Neuronal Activity, Oxidative Metabolism and Blood Supply during Mental Tasks in Brain,” Neurosci. Lett., 197: 129–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. X, Bruley, D.F., Londono, J.M., and X 1998. “Localization of a Fluorescent Object in a Highly Scattering Media via Frequency Response Analysis of NIR-TRS Spectra,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 26: 138–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. X, Nioka, S., and Chance, B. 1996, “Imaging on Brain Model by a Novel Optical Probe - Fiber Hairbrush,” in Adv. Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, Alfano, R.R., and Fumiomoto, J.G., eds., II-183–185.Google Scholar
  129. Luo, Q., Nioka, S., and Chance, B. 1997. “Functional Near-infrared Image,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue: Theory, Instrumentation, Model, and Human Studies, II, Chance, B., Alfano, R., eds., Proc. SPIE, 2979: 84–93.Google Scholar
  130. Villringer, A., and Chance, B., 1997. “Noninvasive Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Human Brain Function,” Trends in Neuroscience, 20: 435–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Chance, B., Kang, K. 2002. Optical identification of cognitive state. Converging technology (NBIC) for improving human performance (this volume).Google Scholar
  132. Damasio, A. 1999. The Feeling of What Happens, Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness, Harcourt Brace and Co., New York, NY.Google Scholar
  133. Donald, M.W. 1991. Origins of the Modern Mind, Three Stages in the Evolution of Culture and Cognition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  134. Garcia-Rill, E. 1997. Disorders of the Reticular Activating System. Med. Hypoth. 49, 379–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. National Research Council Committee on Space Biology and Medicine. 1998. Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine into the Next Century. National Academy Press: Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  136. Pollack, J. 2002. The limits of design complexity. Converging technology (NBIC) for improving human performance (this volume).Google Scholar
  137. ACLU. 2000. and July 19, 2000, Letter to The Honorable Edward M. Kennedy. Ranking Member Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions. 428 Dirksen Senate Office Building. Washington, D.C. 20510. Scholar
  138. Asch, A. 1999. Prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion: A challenge to practice and policy. American Journal of Public Health. 89, 11, 1649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Asch A. 1989. Reproductive technology and disability. In Cohen S, Taub N. Reproductive laws for the 1990s. Clifton, NJ: Humana Press. 69_124.Google Scholar
  140. Asch A, Geller G. 1996. Feminism, bioethics and genetics. In: Wolf S, ed. Feminism and bioethics: Beyond reproduction. New York, NY. Oxford University Press. 318–350.Google Scholar
  141. Bach, J.R. and Tilton, M.C. 1994. Life satisfaction and well-being measures in ventilator assisted individuals with traumatic tetraplegia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. vol. 75, 626–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Cameron, P. et al. 1973. The life satisfaction of nonnormal persons, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. vol. 41, 207–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Caplan, Arthur L. 1992. If gene therapy is the cure, what is the disease? in Annas, George J.; Elias, Sherman, eds. Gene mapping: Using law and ethics as guides. New York. Oxford University Press. page 128–14.Google Scholar
  144. Cooley, W.C. et al. 1990, Reactions of mothers and medical profession to a film about Down Syndrome Am. J. Dis. Child. 144 1112.Google Scholar
  145. Cushman, L.A. and Dijkers, M.P. 1990. Depressed mood in spinal cord injured patients: staff perceptions and patient realities. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. vol. 71. 191–196.Google Scholar
  146. Eisenberg M.G. and Saltz. C.C. 1991. Quality of life among aging spinal cord injured persons: long term rehabilitation outcomes. Paraplegia. vol. 29, 514–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Field, N.I.A. 1993. Killing “the handicapped” before and after birth. Harvard Women’s Law J 16: 79–138.Google Scholar
  148. Fine M., Asch A. 1982. The question of disability: no easy answers for the women’s movement. Reproductive Rights Newsletter. 4 (3). 19–20.Google Scholar
  149. Finger, A. 1987. Past due: Disability, pregnancy and birth. Seattle. Washington Seal Press. Kaplan D. 1994. Prenatal screening and diagnosis: the impact on persons with disabilities. In Rosenberg KHZ, Thompson JED, eds. Women and prenatal testing: Facing the challenges of genetic technology. Columbus. Ohio State University Press. 49–61.Google Scholar
  150. Gerhart, K.A. et al. 1994. Quality of life following spinal cord injury. Knowledge and attitudes of emergency care providers. Annals of Emergency Medicine. vol. 23. 807–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Harris, J. 2000. Is there a coherent social conception of disability? J. of Medical Ethics 26. pp. 95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Helf, C.M., and Glidden, L.M. 1998. More positive or less negative? Trends in research on adjustment of families rearing children with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 36. 457–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Hubbard, R. 1990. The politics of women in biology. New Brunswick, NJ. Rutgers University Press. chap 12–14.Google Scholar
  154. Lippman, A. 1991. Prenatal genetic testing and screening: constructing needs and reinforcing inequities. Am JLaw Med. 17(1_2): 15_50;Google Scholar
  155. Minden, S. 1984. Born and unborn: the implications of reproductive technologies for people with disabilities. In: Aridity R, Duello-Klein R, Minding S, eds. Test-tube women: What future for motherhood Boston, Mass. Pandora Press. 298–312.Google Scholar
  156. Miringoff, M.L. 1991. The social costs of genetic welfare. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  157. Ray, C., West, J. 1984. Social, sexual and personal implications of paraplegia. Paraplegia. 22: 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Roco, M.C., and W.S. Bainbridge (eds). 2001. Societal Implications of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer (also available at Scholar
  159. Saigal, S., et al.; 1996. Self-perceived health status and health-related quality of life of extremely low-birth-weight infants at adolescence. JAMA. 276: 453–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Silver, A. et al. 1998. Disability, Difference, Discrimination: Perspective on justice in bioethics and public policy. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, INC. Landham, Bolder, New York, Oxford.Google Scholar
  161. Scorgie, K., and Sobsey, D. 2000. Transformational outcomes associated with parenting children with disabilities. Mental Retardation. 38 (3), 195–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Shapiro, A. 1998 `Wrongful life’ lawsuits for faulty genetic counselling: Should the impaired newborn be entitled to sue? J. of Medical Ethics 24. 369–375.Google Scholar
  163. Sobsey, D. 1990. Too much stress on stress? Abuse and the family stress factor. Quarterly Newsletter of the American Association on Mental Retardation. 3, 2, 8.Google Scholar
  164. Singer. 2001. Response to Mark Kuczewski. American Journal of Bioethics. Volume 1. Number 3. p. 55–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Stensman, S., 1985. Severely mobility-disabled people assess the quality of their lives. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. vol. 17. 87–99.Google Scholar
  166. Stephens, T. and Brynner, R. 2001. Dark Remedy; the impact of thalidomide. Perseus Publishing. Cambridge Massachusetts. USA page 65/66.Google Scholar
  167. Strauss, S.A. 1996. `Wrongful conception’, `wrongful birth’ and `wrongful life’: the first South African cases. Med. Law. 15: 161–173.Google Scholar
  168. Tyson J.E., Broyles RS. 1996. Progress in assessing the long-term outcome of extremely lowbirth-weight infants. JAMA. 276: 492–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. UNESCO, 2000. database=gedandset=3 BE443E4_0_ 108andhits_rec=3andhits_ing=engGoogle Scholar
  170. Watson, J.D. 1996. President’s essay: genes and politics. Annual Report Cold Springs Harbor. 1996:1–20.“ Exact page
  171. Wertz, D.C. 1998. Eugenics is alive and well. Science in Context 11.3–4. pp 493–510 (p501). Whiteneck, G.C. et al. 1985. Rocky mountain spinal cord injury system. Report to the National Institute of Handicapped Research. 29–33.Google Scholar
  172. Wolbring, G. 1999. Gene Watch June 1999 Vol.12 No.3;,%20Euthanics,%20Euphenics.html Wolbring, G. 2000. Science and the disadvantaged; wolbring.html
  173. Wolbring, G. 2001. Surviving in a technological world. In Disability and the life course: Global perspectives. Edited by Mark Priestley. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  174. Wolbring, G. 2001. 150 page single spaced expert opinion for the Study Commission on the Law and Ethics of Modern Medicine of the German Bundestag with the title “Folgen der Anwendung genetischer Diagnostik fuer behinderte Menschen” (Consequences of the application of genetic diagnostics for disabled people) gut_wol.pdf
  175. Wolbring, G. 2002a. International Center for Bioethics, Culture and Disability.
  176. Wolbring, G. 2002b. Wrongful birth/life suits. Woodrich, W. and Patterson, J.B. 1983. Variables related to acceptance of disability in persons with spinal cord injuries. Journal of Rehabilitation. July-Sept. 26–30.
  177. Grassberger, P. and I. Procaccia. 1983. Physica (Amstredam) D 9, 189 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Kantz, H. 1994. Quantifying the Closeness of Fractal Measures, Phys. Rev. E 49, 5091. Kaufman, L. 1990. Finding Groups in Data: An Introduction to Cluster Analysis ( Wiley, New York).Google Scholar
  179. Kirkpatrick, S., C.D. Gelatt Jr., and M.P. Vecchi. 1983. Optimization by Simulated Annealing. Science 220, N. 4598, 671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Press, W.H., B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolsky and W.T. Vetterling. ND. Numerical Recipes, The Art of Scientific Computing (Book series: Cambridge Univ. Press).Google Scholar
  181. Schreiber, T. 1997. Detecting and Analyzing Nonstationarity in a Time Series Using Nonlinear Cross Predictions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Schreiber, T. and A. Schmitz. 1997. Classification of Time Series Data with Nonlinear Similarity Measures, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Abbott, L.F., and Nelson S.B. 2000. Synaptic plasticity: taming the beast. Nat Neurosci 3: 1178–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Cauller, L.J. (in press). The neurointeractive paradigm: dynamical mechanics and the emergence of higher cortical function. In: Theories of Cerebral Cortex Hecht-Neilsen R and McKenna T (eds).Google Scholar
  185. Edelman G.M. and G. Tonomi. 2001. A Universe of Consciousness: How Matter Becomes Imagination Basic Books.Google Scholar
  186. Elman, J.L., D. Parisi, E.A. Bates, M.H. Johnson, A. Karmiloff-Smith. 1997. Rethinking Innateness: A Connectionist Perspective on Development, MIT Press, Boston.Google Scholar
  187. Felleman, D.J., and Van Essen D.C. 1991. Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex. Cereb Cortex l (l):1–47.Google Scholar
  188. Freeman, W.J. 2000. Neurodynamics: An Exploration in Mesoscopic Brain Dynamics (Perspectives in Neural Computing). Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  189. Kelso, S. 1995. Dynamic Patterns (Complex Adaptive Systems). MIT Press, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  190. Kurzweil, R. 1999. The Age of Spiritual Machines. Viking Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  191. Ader, R. and Cohen, N. 1975. Behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 37 (4): 333–340.Google Scholar
  192. Andreassi, J.L. 2000. Psychophysiology: human behavior and physiological response, 41h edition, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  193. Azar, B. (1999). Father of PNI reflects on the field’s growth. APA Monitor, 30(6). Retrieved April 7, 2002 from Scholar
  194. Brown, D. 2001. “Joint NASA/NCI Research to Develop Sensors for Health Monitoring Inside the Human Body”. News Release 01–229, Nov. 21, 2001, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. Retrieved May 3, 2002 from OBPR-01–230.html.
  195. European Commission. 2001. Blood Chemistry in Real Time. Innovation in Europe: Research and Results: Medicine and Health. Retrieved November 5, 2001, fromGoogle Scholar
  196. Freitas, R.A., Jr. 1999. Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities. Landes Bioscience. Retrieved April 7, 2002 from
  197. Hefferline, R.F., Keenan, B., and Harford, R.A. 1959. Escape and Avoidance Conditioning in Human Subjects without Their Observation of the Response. Science, 130, 1338–1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Hugdahl, K. 1995. Psychophysiology: The Mind-Body Perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  199. Hutchison, A. 2001. “NASA Biotechnology Project May Advance Cancer Research.” News Release 01–96AR, Dec. 5, 2001, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. Retrieved May 3, 2002 from
  200. Kamiya, J. 1971. Biofeedback and Self-Control: Preface. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton. ix-xvi.Google Scholar
  201. Ley, R. 1987. Panic Disorder: A Hyperventilation Interpretation. In Michelson, L. and Ascher, L.M. (eds.). Anxiety and Stress Disorders: Cognitive-Behavioral Assessment and Treatment. New York: The Guilford Press. 191–212.Google Scholar
  202. McKhann, G.M. 2001. A Neurologist Looks Ahead to 2025. Cerebrum, 3 (3), 83–104.Google Scholar
  203. Miller, N.E. 1969. Learning of Visceral and Glandular Responses. Science, 163, 434–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). 2002. BioMolecular Systems Research Program. NASA AstroBionics Program. Retrieved April 7, 2002 from Scholar
  205. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). 2002. Biomolecular Sensor Development: Overview. Retrieved May 3, 2002 from
  206. National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). 2001. “Fundamental Technologies for Development of Biomolecular Sensors.” NASA/NCI Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) (N01-CO-17016–32). Retrieved April 7, 2002 from
  207. National Science and Technology Council Committee on Technology, Subcommittee on Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology. 2000. National Nanotechnology Initiative: The Initiative and its Implementation Plan. Vision: Advanced Healthcare, Therapeutics and Diagnostics: a. Earlier Detection and Treatment of Disease: Sensors. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  208. Norris, S.L., and Currieri, M. Performance Enhancement Training Through Neurofeedback. 1999. In Evans, J.R. and Abarbanel, A. (eds.) Introduction to Quantitative EEG and Neurofeedback. San Diego: Academic Press. 223–240.Google Scholar
  209. Prinzel, L.J., Pope, A.T., and Freeman, F.G. 2002. Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Automation. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 12 (2), 181–198.Google Scholar
  210. Roco, M.C. and Bainbridge, W.S. (eds.). 2001. Societal Implications of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  211. Lloyd, S., M.S. Shahriar, J.H. Shapiro, P.R. Hemmer. 2001. Phys Rev Lett. Oct 15;87(16):167903 Long Distance, Unconditional Teleportation of Atomic States via Complete Bell State MeasurementsGoogle Scholar
  212. Unison In 1998: A Canadian Approach to Disability Issues A Vision Paper Federal/Provincial/Territorial Ministers Responsible for Social Services.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Parsons
  • J. Watson
  • Patricia Connolly
    • 1
  • Michael J. Heller
    • 2
  • Jeffrey Bonadio
    • 3
  • Peter C. Johnson
    • 4
  • Jack M. Loomis
    • 5
  • Britton Chance
    • 6
  • Kyung A. Kang
    • 7
  • Edgar Garcia-Rill
    • 8
  • Gregor Wolbring
    • 9
    • 17
  • Rodolfo R. Llinás
    • 10
  • Valeri A. Makarov
    • 10
  • Miguel A. L. Nicolelis
    • 11
  • Mandayam A. Srinivasan
    • 12
  • Abraham Phillip Lee
    • 13
  • Larry Cauller
    • 14
  • Andy Penz
    • 14
  • Alan T. Pope
    • 15
  • Olafur S. Poisson
    • 16
  • U. Calgary
    • 17
  • R. Golledge
    • 17
  1. 1.University of StrathclydeUK
  2. 2.University of California San DiegoUSA
  3. 3.University of WashingtonUSA
  4. 4.TissueInformatics, Inc.USA
  5. 5.University of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  6. 6.University of PennsylvaniaUSA
  7. 7.University of LouisvilleUSA
  8. 8.University of Arkansas for Medical SciencesUSA
  9. 9.University of CalgaryUSA
  10. 10.NYU Medical SchoolUSA
  11. 11.Duke University Medical CenterUSA
  12. 12.MITUSA
  13. 13.University of California at IrvineUSA
  14. 14.University of Texas at DallasUSA
  15. 15.NASA Langley Research CenterUSA
  16. 16.Mindspire, LLCUSA
  17. 17.UCSBUSA

Personalised recommendations