Dynamics of Galactic Cosmic Rays

  • Leonty I. Miroshnichenko
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 297)


The cosmic radiation incident at the top of the terrestrial atmosphere includes all stable charged particles and nuclei with lifetimes of order 106 years or longer. Technically, “primary” cosmic rays are those particles accelerated at astrophysical sources and “secondaries” are those particles produced in interaction of the primaries with interstellar gas. Thus, electrons, protons and helium, as well as carbon, oxygen, iron and other nuclei synthesized in stars, are primaries. Nuclei such as lithium, beryllium, and boron (which are not abundant end products of stellar nucleosynthesis) are secondaries. Antiprotons and positrons are partly, if not entirely, secondaries, but the fraction of these particles that may be primary is a question of current interest.


Linear Energy Transfer Neutron Monitor Cosmic Radiation Heliospheric Magnetic Field Galactic Cosmic Radiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonty I. Miroshnichenko
    • 1
  1. 1.IZMIRANTroitsk, Moscow RegionRussia

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