The Biological Efficacy of Open Ocean Exchange — Implications for Ballast Water Management

  • Bella S. Galil
  • Norbert Hülsmann


The urgent need to control ballast-mediated bioinvasions prompted the maritime industry and the legislators to adopt open-ocean ballast water exchange without rigorously testing its effectiveness in terms of eliminating ballast-entrained biota. A review of recent studies of biota entrained in ballast water and sediments following open-ocean exchange raised questions as to the reliability of the procedure as an effective control measure.


Ballast Water International Maritime Organization Dinoflagellate Cyst Bulk Carrier Container Vessel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Israel Oceanographic and Limnological ResearchNational Institute of OceanographyHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Institute of Zoology/ProtozoologyFree University BerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations