The Biological Efficacy of Open Ocean Exchange — Implications for Ballast Water Management
The urgent need to control ballast-mediated bioinvasions prompted the maritime industry and the legislators to adopt open-ocean ballast water exchange without rigorously testing its effectiveness in terms of eliminating ballast-entrained biota. A review of recent studies of biota entrained in ballast water and sediments following open-ocean exchange raised questions as to the reliability of the procedure as an effective control measure.
KeywordsBallast Water International Maritime Organization Dinoflagellate Cyst Bulk Carrier Container Vessel
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.