Boundary Layer Quasi-Equilibrium (BLQ)

  • David J. Raymond
Chapter
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIC, volume 505)

Abstract

Boundary layer quasi-equilibrium (BLQ) is a theory of how moist convection is controlled over the warm tropical oceans. Theories of convective control fall into two categories, those which postulate that convection is controlled by the large scale convergence of moisture, and those which insist that convection is controlled by the production and destruction of convective instability. BLQ falls in the latter category and pays particular attention to the role of the subcloud or boundary layer in determining instability. This presentation is based on work published by Raymond [16] and Emanuel [6].

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Albrecht, B. A., A. K. Betts, W. H. Schubert, and S. K. Cox (1979) A model of the thermodynamic structure of the trade-wind boundary layer: Part I. Theoretical formulation and sensitivity tests. J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. no. 36, 73–89.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arakawa, A., and W. H. Schubert (1974) Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment, part I. J. Atmos. Sci.,Vol. no. 31 674–701.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bean, B. R., R. Gilmer, R. L. Grossman, R. McGavin, and C. Travis (1972) An analysis of airborne measurements of vertical water vapor flux during BOMEX. J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. no. 29, 860–869.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Charney, J. G. (1963) A note on large-scale motions in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. no. 20, 607–609.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Emanuel, K. (1993) The effect of convective response time on WISHE modes. J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. no. 50, 1763–1775.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Emanuel, K. A. (1995) The behavior of a simple hurricane model using a convective scheme based on subcloud-layer entropy equilibrium. J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. no. 52, 3960–3968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Emanuel, K. A., J. D. Neelin, and C. S. Bretherton (1994) On large-scale circulations in convecting atmospheres. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., Vol. no. 120, 1111–1143.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Esbensen, S. (1975) An analysis of subcloud-layer heat and moisture budgets in the western Atlantic trades. J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. no. 32, 1921–1933.Google Scholar
  9. Hayes, S. P., L. J. Mangum, J. Picaut, A. Suini, and K. Takeuchi (1991) TOGA-TAO: A Moored array for real-time measurements in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc.,Vol. no. 72 339–347.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jenkins, M. A., and H.-R. Cho (1991) An observational study of the first-order vorticity dynamics in a tropical easterly wave. J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. no. 48, 965–975.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McPhaden, M. J. (1995) The tropical atmosphere ocean array is completed. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., Vol. no. 76, 739–741.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Neelin, J. D., and I. M. Held (1987) Modeling tropical convergence based on the moist static energy budget. Mon. Wea. Rev., Vol. no. 115, 3–12.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nicholls, S., and M. A. LeMone (1980) The fair weather boundary layer in GATE: The relationship of subcloud fluxes and structure to the distribution and enhancement of cumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. no. 37, 2051–2067.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Norquist, D. C., E. E. Recker, and R. J. Reed (1977) The energetics of African wave disturbances as observed during Phase III of GATE. Mon. Wea. Rev., Vol. no. 105, 334–342.Google Scholar
  15. Raymond, D. J. (1994) Cumulus convection and the Madden-Julian oscillation of the tropical troposphere. Physica D,Vol. no. 77 1–22.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Raymond, D. J. (1995) Regulation of moist convection over the west Pacific warm pool. J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. no. 52, 3945–3959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reed, R. J. and E. E. Recker (1971) Structure and properties of synoptic-scale wave disturbances in the equatorial western Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. no. 28, 1117–1133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Williams, E., and N. Renno (1993) An analysis of the conditional instability of the tropical atmosphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., Vol. no. 121, 21–36.Google Scholar
  19. Zhang, C. (1996) Atmospheric intraseasonal variability at the surface in the tropical western Pacific Ocean. J. Atmos. Sci.,Vol. no. 53 739–758.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Raymond
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics Department and Geophysical Research CenterNew Mexico TechSocorroUSA

Personalised recommendations