Sea Outfalls

  • P. J. W. Roberts
Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 19)


The design and prediction of the environmental impact of sea outfalls are discussed. Design objectives and criteria are presented with the emphasis on environmental hydraulics, although internal hydraulics are also reviewed. Dispersion from outfalls in coastal areas is discussed and two regions of mixing, the near- and far-field, are defined. The dynamics of plume mixing in the near field is discussed and equations presented from which wastefield characteristics can be predicted for various situations. Mathematical models of near-field mixing are also reviewed. Methods of assessing far-field transport and mixing are then given followed by a brief discussion of the oceanographic data gathering needed for design and modeling. Some “Special Topics,” including the design of tunneled outfalls, the use of hydraulic models, new laboratory techniques for investigation of mixing processes, and the use of three-dimensional coastal hydrodynamic models are then addressed. Finally, a design example is presented.


Froude Number Momentum Flux Current Speed Buoyancy Flux Buoyant Plume 
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1996

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  • P. J. W. Roberts

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