Wetlands of tropical South America

  • Wolfgang J. Junk
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of vegetation science book series (HAVS, volume 15-2)

Abstract

The climate of tropical South America is characterized over large areas by a high annual precipitation, varying from 1,000 mm to more than 5,000 mm per year. A pronounced seasonality in rainfall results in the periodic flooding of large areas covered by forests or savanna vegetation. Therefore, most of the wetlands in this area belong to the category of seasonal wetlands with a pronounced dry period.

Flooding may occur by lateral overflow of rivers and streams or by sheet flooding due to excess rain and insufficient drainage. The floodpulse is mono-modal and predictable in the savannas and the fringing floodplains along the large rivers whereas it is polymodal and unpredictable in the floodplains along small streams.

Plants and animals respond to this pulsing with a large set of morphological, anatomical, physiological, and ethological adaptations. Inspite of the physiological stress of the change between aquatic and terrestrial conditions, species diversity is comparatively high. Floodplains of tropical South America may be considered as areas of speciation, contributing to the great species diversity in the area. On the other hand, the floodpulse results in a periodic exchange of biological information between the wetlands and the drainage system, often over long distances. Therefore, many species have a wide range of distribution.

Nutrient status of the wetlands varies from extremely low levels in areas flooded by nutrient-poor water (e.g. from rains or black water rivers) to high levels in the fringing floodplains of white water rivers, rich in fertile sediments and electrolytes. Consequently, productivity varies from low to very high, reaching maximum values up to 100 t dry material per hectare per year in the floodplain of the Amazon River. There is a complex exchange of nutrients and energy between the terrestrial and the aquatic phase and between the floodplains and the connected river systems.

Further wetland types occur mainly along the coast of the Atlantic ocean, partly in the form of mangroves or salt marshes. Peat bogs, cushion bogs, and reed swamps occur, to a small extent, in the wet Paramos of the high Andes, salt pans occur in the dry Puna. There is no exact information about the total wetland area in tropical South America, partly due to the seasonal character of the wetlands which have been poorly studied and are often not recognized as wetlands. It is estimated, that more than 2,000,000 km2 may belong to the wetland category corresponding to about 20% of the area.

In recent times, all wetland types are becoming increasingly influenced and modified by man. In floodplains agriculture and husbandry are the main anthropogenic factors, modifying natural vegetation by deforestation and use of fire for weed control. Some river-floodplains are becoming strongly affected by the construction of flood-control measures and hydroelectric power schemes. Water pollution due to the input of sediments, agro-industrial wastes, agrochemicals, and mercury is becoming a serious threat. Mangroves are probably the most endangered wetlands due to industrial pollution, colonization projects, timber extraction, and large scale fish- and shrimpcul-ture.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ab’Saber, A. N. (1988) O Pantanal Mato-Grossense e a teoria dos refëgios. Revista Brasileira de Geografia 50: 9–57.Google Scholar
  2. Acosta Solis, M. (1966) Las divisiones fitogeogrâficas y las formaciones geobotânicas del Ecuador. Revista Academia Colombiana 12: 401–447.Google Scholar
  3. Adamoli, J. (1981) O Pantanal e suas relaçôes fitogeogrâficas com os cerrados. Discussâo sobre o conceito “Complexo do Pantanal”. Congresso Nacional de Botanica, Teresina, 1981. Sociedade Brasileira de Botanica 32: 109–119.Google Scholar
  4. Adamoli, J. (1986) A dinâmica das inundaçôes no Pantanal. Anais do Primeiro Simpósio sobre Recursos Naturais e Sócio-economicos do Pantanal. Corumbâ 1984. Departamento de Difusâo de Technologia, Documento No. 5, EMBRAPA, Brasilia, Brazil: 51–61.Google Scholar
  5. Adis, J. (1984) “Seasonal Igapó”-forest of Central Amazonian blackwater rivers and their terrestrial arthropod fauna, p. 246–268. In: H. Sioli (ed.). The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and its Basin. Dr. W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  6. Adis, J. (in press) überlebensstrategien terrestrischer Invertebraten in überschwemmungswäldern Zentralamazoniens. Habilitationsschrift, Universität Kiel, Germany.Google Scholar
  7. Adis, J., Furch, K. and Irmler, U. (1979) Litter production of a central amazonian blackwater inundation forest. Tropical Ecology 20: 236–245.Google Scholar
  8. Alho, C. J. R., Lacher, T. E. and Gonçalves, H. C. (1988) Environmental degradation in the Pantanal ecosystem. Bioscience 38: 164–171.Google Scholar
  9. Alvarenga, S. M., Brasil, A. E., Pinheira, R. and Kux, H. J. H. (1984) Estudo geomorfológico aplicado à Bacia do Alto Rio Paraguai e Pantanais Matogrossenses. Boletim Técnico Projeto RADAM/BRASIL. Série Geomorfologia, Salvador, 187: 89–183.Google Scholar
  10. Amaral Filho, Z. P. (1986) Solos do Pantanal Matogrossense. Anais do Primeiro Simpósio sobre Recursos Naturais e Socio-econômicos do Pantanal. Corumbâ 1984. Departamento de Difusao de Tecnologia, Documento No. 5, EMBRAPA, Brasilia, Brazil: 29–42.Google Scholar
  11. Anonymous (1972) Regenwasseranalysen aus Zentralamazonien, ausgeführt in Manaus, Amazonas von Dr. Harald Ungemach. Amazoniana 3: 186–198.Google Scholar
  12. Arias, P. A. (1975) Contribución al conocimiento limnológico de Guarinocito y su relacion con el rio Magdalena. Thesis, Bogota, Fundación University de Bogota, Columbia.Google Scholar
  13. Barco, M. V. and Villarreal, M. Z. (1989) Some ecological aspects and present state of the fishery of the Magdalena river basin, Columbia, South America, p. 409–421. In: D. P. Dodge (ed.). Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium (LARS). Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 106.Google Scholar
  14. Barros, A. M., Silva, R. H., Cardoso, O. R. F. A., Freire, F. A., Souza Jr., J. J., Rivetti, M., Luz, D. S., Palmeira, R. C. B. and Tassinari, C. C. G. (1982) Geologia. p. 25–175. In: Brasil. Ministério das Minas e Energia. Projeto RADAM/BRASIL. Folha SD, 21 Cuiabâ. Levantamento de Recursos Naturais 26, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.Google Scholar
  15. Bayley, P. B. (1981) Fish yield from the Amazon in Brazil. Comparison with African river yields and management possibilities. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 100: 351–359.Google Scholar
  16. Bayley, P. B. (1982) Central Amazon fish populations: Biomass production and some dynamic characteristics. Ph. D. thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada. 308 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Bayley, P. B. and Petrere Jr., M. (1989) Amazon fisheries: Assessment methods, current status, and management options, p. 385–398. In: D. P. Dodge (ed.). Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium (LARS). Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 106: 385–398.Google Scholar
  18. Beard, J. S. (1953) The savanna vegetation of northern tropical America. Ecological Monographs 23: 149–215.Google Scholar
  19. Beck, L. (1976) Zum Massenwechsel der Makro-Arthropodenfauna des Bodens in Überschwemmungswäldern des zentralen Amazonasgebietes. Amazoniana 6: 1–20.Google Scholar
  20. Beck, S. (1983) Vegetationsökologische Grundlagen der Viehwirtschaft in den Überschwemmungs-Savannen des Rio Yacuma (Departamento Beni, Bolivien). Dissertationes Botanicae 80, Ganter Verlag, Vaduz, Schweiz. 214 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Beek, K. J. and Bramäo, D. L. (1968) Nature and geography of South American soils, p. 82–112. In: E. J. Fittkau, J. lilies, H. Klinge, G. H. Schwabe, and H. Sioli (eds.). Biogeography and Ecology in South America. W. Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  22. Benoist, R. (1924) La végétation de la Guyane Française. Bulletin Société Botanique de France 71: 1169–1177.Google Scholar
  23. Blanco, L. J. and Sanchez, L. (1984) Contribución al estudio taxonómico de las diatomeas del Orinoco medio, bajo Caroni y algunas lagunas de inundación (Venezuela). Mémoires Société Sciences Naturelles La Salle, Caracas: 35–94.Google Scholar
  24. Blydenstein, J. (1967) Tropical savanna vegetation of the Llanos of Colombia. Ecology 48: 1–15.Google Scholar
  25. Bonetto, A. A. and Castello, H. P. (1985) Pesca y piscicultura en aguas continentales de America Latina. Secretaria General de los Estados Americanos Programa Regional de Desar-ollo Cientifico y Technológico, Washington, DC, USA. 118 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Bongers, F. and Engelen, D. (1982) Some aspects of the structure and ecology of an Amazon Caatinga forest in southern Venezuela. Report Department Geobotany, University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 58 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Bongers, F., Engelen, D. and Klinge, H. (1985) Phytomass structure of natural communities on spodosols in southern Venezuela: the Bana woodland. Vegetatio 63: 13–34.Google Scholar
  28. Boyé, M. (1962) Les palétuviers de littoral de la Guyane Française: ressources et problèmes d’exploitation. Cahiers Outre-mer 15: 271–290.Google Scholar
  29. Bremer, H. (1972) Flußarbeit, Flächen- und Stufenbildung in den feuchten Tropen. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N. F. Supplement Bd. 14: 21–38.Google Scholar
  30. Brokx, P. A. (1972) A Study of the Biology of the Venezuelan Whitetailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus gymnotis Wiegmann 1833) with a Hypothesis on the Origin of American Cervids. Ph. D. thesis, University Waterloo, Canada. 355 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Brown Jr., K. Z. (1986) Zoogeografia da regiäo do Pantanal Matogrossense. Anais do Primeiro Simpósio sobre Recursos Naturais e Socio-econômicos do Pantanal. Corumbâ 1984. Departa-mento de Difusäo de Technologia, Documento No. 5, EMBRAPA, Brasilia, Brazil: 137–178.Google Scholar
  32. Camargo, F. (1949) Reclamation of the Amazonian flood-lands near Belém. UNSCCUR Proceedings, Land resources: 598–602.Google Scholar
  33. Carvalho, J. C. de M. (1984) The conservation of nature in the Brazilian Amazonia, p. 707–736. In: H. Sioli (ed.). The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and its Basin. Dr. W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  34. Chapman, V. J. (1975) Mangrove Vegetation. Cramer, Lehre. 425 pp.Google Scholar
  35. Church, G. (1898) Argentine geography and the ancient Pampean sea. Geography Journal 12: 386–401.Google Scholar
  36. Cleef, A. M. (1981) The vegetation of the Paramos of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. Dissertationes Botanicae 61, Ganter Verlag, Vaduz, Switzerland. 320 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Cochrane, T. T. (1973) El potential agricola del uso de la tierra en Bolivia. Un mapa de sistema de tierras. Don Bosco, La Paz, Bolivia. 826 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Conceiçao, C. A. and Paula, J. E. (1986) Contribuiçao para o conhecimento da flora do Pantanal Matogrossense e sua relaçao com a fauna e o homen. Anais do Primeiro Simpósio sobre Recursos Naturais e Sócio-economicos do Pantanal. Corumbâ 1984. Departamento de Difusäo de Technologia, Documento No. 5, EMBRAPA, Brasilia, Brazil: 107–130.Google Scholar
  39. Del’Arco, J. D., Silva, R. H., Rarapanoff, L, Freire, F. A., Pereira, L. G. M., Souza, S. L., Luz, D. S., Palmeira, R. C. B. and Tassinari, C. C. G. (1982) Geologia. p. 25–175. In: Brasil. Ministério das Minas e Energia. Projeto RADAM/BRASIL. Folha SE, 21 Corumbâ e parte da folha SE 20. Levantamento de Recursos Naturais 27, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.Google Scholar
  40. Dene van, W. M. (1966) The aboriginal cultural geography of the Llanos de Mojos of Bolivia. Ibero Amerincana (Berkeley) 48. 160 pp.Google Scholar
  41. Devol, A. H., Richey, B. R., Forsberg, B. R. and Martinelli, L. A. (1990) Seasonal dynamics in methane emissions from the Amazon river to the troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 95: 16,417–16,426.Google Scholar
  42. Dister, E. (1983) Anthropogene Wasserstandsänderungen in Flußauen und ihre ökologischen Folgen: Beispiele vom Oberrhein und vom Rio Magdalena (Kolumbien). Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für ökologie 11: 89–100.Google Scholar
  43. Dister, E. and Lozano, L. C. G. (1984) Ökologische Aspekte beim Ausbau des Rio Magdalena/Kolumbien. Biogeographica 19: 41–56.Google Scholar
  44. Donselaar, J. van (1965) An ecological and phytogeographical study of north Suriname savannas. Wentia 14: 1–163.Google Scholar
  45. Eden, M. J. (1970) Savanna vegetation in the Northern Rupununi, Guayana. Journal of Tropical Geography 30: 17–28.Google Scholar
  46. Ertel, J. R., Hedges, J. I., Devol, A. H. and Richey, J. E. (1986) Dissolved humic substances of the Amazon river system. Limnology and Oceanography 31: 739–754.Google Scholar
  47. ERTS (1978) Mapa de cobertura y uso actual de la tierra, Bolivia. Memoria explicativa. GEOBOL (Serie sensores remotos, La Paz) 2. La Paz, Bolivia. 116 pp.Google Scholar
  48. Escobar, A. (1977) Estudio de las sabanas inundables de Paspalum fasciculatum. M. Sc. thesis, IVIC.Google Scholar
  49. Falesi, I. C, Rodrigues, T. E., Morikawa, I. K. and Reis, R. S. (1971) Solos do distrito agropecuârio da SUFRAMA (Trecho km 30-km 79, Rod. BR-174). Instituto de Pesquisa e Experimentaçâo Agropecuâria da Amazônia Ocidental (IPEAAOc), Serie Solos I. 99 pp.Google Scholar
  50. Fanshawe, D. B. (1952) The Vegetation of British Guiana. Imperial Forestry Institute Paper No 29. Oxford University Press, London, England. 96 pp.Google Scholar
  51. FAO (1966) Reconocimento edafologico de los Llanos Orientales, Colombia. Ill La vegetacion natural y la ganaderia en los Llanos Orientales. FAO, Rome, Italy. 233 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Fisher Jr., T. J. and Parsley, P. E. (1979) Amazon lakes: water storage and nutrient stripping by algae. Limnology and Oceanography 24: 547–553.Google Scholar
  53. Fittkau, E. J. (1964) Remarks on limnology of central Amazon rain-forest streams. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Limnologie 15: 1092–1096.Google Scholar
  54. Fittkau, E. J. (1967) On the ecology of Amazonian rain-forest streams. Atas do Simpósio sobre a Biota Amazônica 3 (Limnologia): 97–108.Google Scholar
  55. Fittkau, E. J. (1973) Artenmannigfaltigkeit amazonischer Lebensräume aus ökologischer Sicht. Amazoniana 4: 321–340.Google Scholar
  56. Fittkau, E. J. (1976) Kinal und Kinon, Lebensraum und Lebensgemeinschaft der Oberflächendrift am Beispiel amazonischer Fließgewässer. Biogeographica 7: 101–113.Google Scholar
  57. Fittkau, E. J. (1982) Struktur, Funktion und Diversität zentralamazonischer ökosysteme. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 95: 29–45.Google Scholar
  58. Forsberg, B. R., Devol, A. H., Richey, J. E., Martinelli, L. A. and Santos, H. M. (1988) Factors controlling nutrient concentrations in Amazon floodplain lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 33: 41–56.Google Scholar
  59. Forti, A. (1953) Un interesante caso hydrológico y un grandioso aprovechamiento sudamericano de fuerza motriz hidraulica. G. Kraft, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 152 pp.Google Scholar
  60. Freyburg, G. V. (1930) Zerstörung und Sedimentation an der Mangroveküste Brasiliens. Leopoldina 6: 69–117.Google Scholar
  61. Furch, B. (1984) Untersuchungen zur Überschwemmungstoleranz von Bäumen der Vârzea und des Igapó. Blattpigmente. Biogeographica 19: 77–83.Google Scholar
  62. Furch, K. (1976) Haupt- und Spurenmetallgehalte zentralamazonischer Gewässertypen. Biogeographica 7: 27–43.Google Scholar
  63. Furch, K. (1984) Seasonal variations of the major cation content of the vârzea-lake Lago Camaleäo, middle Amazon, Brasil in 1981 and 1982. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Limnologie 22: 1288–1293.Google Scholar
  64. Furch, K. (1986) Hydrogeochemie von Fließgewässern im Bereich der Transamazonica (Nordbrasilien). Amazoniana 9: 371–409.Google Scholar
  65. Furch, K. and Junk, W. J. (1980) Water chemistry and macrophytes of creeks and rivers in Southern Amazonia and the Central Brazilian Shield, p. 771–796. In: J. I. Furtado, (ed.). Tropical Ecology and Development. Proceedings of the Vth International Symposium of Tropical Ecology, 16–21 April 1979, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  66. Furch, K. and Junk, W. J. (1980) Water chemistry and macrophytes of creeks and rivers in southern Amazonia and the Central Brasilian Shield. Tropical Ecology and Development: 171–196.Google Scholar
  67. Furch, K. and Klinge, H. (1978) Towards a regional characterization of the biogeochemistry of alkali- and alkali-earth metals in northern South America. Acta Cientifica Venezolana 29: 434–444.Google Scholar
  68. Furch, K., Junk, W. J., Dieterich, J. and Kochert, N. (1983) Seasonal variation in the major cation (Na, K, Mg and Ca) content of the water of Lago Camaleäo, an Amazonian floodplain-lake near Manaus, Brazil. Amazoniana 8: 75–89.Google Scholar
  69. Furch, K., Junk, W. J. and Campos, Z. E. S. (1989) Nutrient dynamics of decomposing leaves from Amazonian floodplain forest species in water. Amazoniana 11: 91–116.Google Scholar
  70. Geijskes, D. C. (1945) Plants of the Surinam coastland. Journal New York Botanical Garden 46: 229–236.Google Scholar
  71. Geisler, R., Knöppel, H. A. and Sioli, H. (1971) Ökologie der Süßwasserfische Amazoniens. Stand und Zukunftsaufgaben der Forschung. Naturwissenschaften 58: 303–311.Google Scholar
  72. Géry, J. (1969) The fresh-water fishes of South America, p. 828–848. In: E. J. Fittkau, J. Mies, H. Klinge, G. H. Schwabe, and H. Sioli (eds.). Biogeography and Ecology in South America. Dr. W. Junk, Publisher, La Hay a, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  73. Gessner, F. (1955) Die limnologischen Verhältnisse in den Seen und Flüssen von Venezuela. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Limnologie 12: 284–295.Google Scholar
  74. Gessner, F. (1965) Zur Limnologie des unteren Orinoco. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie 50: 305–333.Google Scholar
  75. Gessner, F. (1967) Untersuchungen an der Mangrove in Ost-Venezuela. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie 52: 769–781.Google Scholar
  76. Gessner, F. and Hammer, L. (1967) Limnologische Untersuchungen an Seen der venezolanischen Hochanden. Internationale Revue gesamten Hydrobiologie 52: 301–320.Google Scholar
  77. Gibbs, R. J. (1967) The geochemistry of the Amazon river system. I. The factors that control the salinity and the composition and concentration of the suspended solids. Geological Society of America, Bulletin 78: 1203–1232.Google Scholar
  78. Gilson, H. C. (1964) Lake Titicaca. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Limnologie: 112–127.Google Scholar
  79. Godoi Filho, J. D. (1986) Aspectos geológicos do Pantanal Matogrossense e de sua area de influência. Anais do Primeiro Simpósio sobre Recursos Naturais e Socio econômicos do Pantanal. Corumbâ 1984. p. 63–76. In: Departamento de Difusäo de Tecnologia, Documento No. 5, EMBRAPA, Brasilia, Brazil.Google Scholar
  80. Godt, M. C. (1985) Ökologische Untersuchungen zur Verbreitung der Mangrove in Peru. M. Sc. thesis University Bielefeld, Germany. 145 pp.Google Scholar
  81. Gonzales-Jimenez, E. (1979) Primary and secondary productivity in flooded savannas, p. 620–625. In: UNESCO/UNEP/FAO Tropical Grazing Land Ecosystems. Paris, France.Google Scholar
  82. Goodland, R. (1978) Environmental assessment of the Tucurui hydroproject Rio Tocantins, Amazonia, Brazil. Eletronorte, S.A. Brasilia, D.F., Brazil. 168 pp.Google Scholar
  83. Gottsberger, G. (1978) Seed dispersal by fish in the inundated regions of Humaitâ, Amazonia. Biotropica 10: 170–183.Google Scholar
  84. Goulding, M. (1981) The Fishes and the Forest. Explorations in Amazonian Natural History. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA. 280 pp.Google Scholar
  85. Goulding, M., Carvalho, M. L. and Ferreira, E. G. (1988) Rio Negro, Rich Life in Poor Water. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands. 200 pp.Google Scholar
  86. Gourou, P. (1950) Observaçôes geogrâficas na Amazonia. Revista Brasileira de Geografia 11: 355–408.Google Scholar
  87. Guerra, A. T. (1957) Estudo geogrâfico do Territorio do Rio Branco. Biblioteca Geogrâfica Brasileira 13 (Serie A), I.B.G.E. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. 252 pp.Google Scholar
  88. Gutte, P. (1980) Beitrag zur Kenntnis zentralperuanischer Pflanzengesellschaften II. Die Hochandinen Moore und ihre Kontaktgesellschaften. Feddes Repertorium 91: 327–336.Google Scholar
  89. Haase, R. (1989) Plant communities of a savanna in northern Bolivia I. Seasonally flooded grassland and gallery forest. Phytocoenologia 18: 55–81.Google Scholar
  90. Haase, R. (1990a) Plant communities of a savanna in northern Bolivia II. Palm swamps, dry grassland, and shrubs. Phytocoenologia 18: 343–370.Google Scholar
  91. Haase, R. (1990b) Community composition and soil properties in northern Bolivian savanna vegetation. Journal of Vegetation Science 1: 345–352.Google Scholar
  92. Haase, R. and Beck, S. G. (1989) Structure and composition of savanna vegetation in northern Bolivia: A preliminary report. Brittonia 41: 80–100.Google Scholar
  93. Harling, G. (1979) The vegetation types of Ecuador — a brief survey, p. 165–174. In: K. Larsen, and L. B. Holm-Nilsen (eds.). Tropical Botany. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  94. Harnecker, R., Salazar, R. and Santa Maria, D. (1954) Los principios técnicos y económicos do aprovechamiento internacional de las aguas del lago Titicaca. Panorama Económico, Santiago de Chile: 702–708.Google Scholar
  95. Hedges, J. I., Clark, W. A., Quay, P. D., Richey, J. E., Devol, A. H. and Santos, H. M. (1986) Composition and fluxes of particulate organic material in the Amazon river. Limnology and Oceanography 31: 717–738.Google Scholar
  96. Hegewald, E., Aldave, A. and Hakulit, T. (1976) Investigations of the lakes of Peru and their phytoplankton 1. Review of literature, description of the investigated waters and chemical data. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 78: 494–506.Google Scholar
  97. Herrera, R. (1979) Nutrient Distribution and Cycling in an Amazon Caatinga Forest on Spodosols in Southern Venezuela. Ph. D. thesis, University Reading, England. 241 pp.Google Scholar
  98. Harnecker, R., Salazar, R. and Santa Maria, D. (1954) Los Principios Técnicos y Económicos des Aprovechamiento Internacional de los Aguas del Lago Titicaca. Panorama Económico, Santiago de Chile: 702–708.Google Scholar
  99. Herrera, R., Medina, E., Klinge, H., Jordan, C. F. and Uhl, C. (in press) Nutrient retention mechanisms in tropical forests: The Amazon Caatinga, San Carlos Pilot Project, Venezuela. In: F. di Castri, F. W. G. Baker, and M. Hadley (eds.). Ecology in Practice. Establishing a Scientific Basis for Land Management.Google Scholar
  100. Tycooly, Dublin, Ireland. Hoehne, F. C. (1923) Phytophysionomia do Estado de Mato-Grosso. Compania Melhoramentos, Säo Paulo, Brazil: 53–58.Google Scholar
  101. Hoehne, F. C. (1936) O grande Pantanal de Mato Grosso. Bolivian Agriculture, Säo Paulo, Brazil: 443–470.Google Scholar
  102. Hof mann, R. K., Ponce del Prado, CF. and Otte, K. C (1976) Registrato de dos nue vas especies de mamiferos para el Peru Odocoileus dichotomus (Illiger 1811) y Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger 1811), con notas sobre su habitat. Revista Forestal Peru, 5: 61–81.Google Scholar
  103. Huber, J. (1903) Contribuiçâo a geographia physica dos Furos de Breves e da parte occidental de Marajó. Boletin do Museo Paraense de Historias Naturais 3: 447–498.Google Scholar
  104. Huber, O. (1982a) Esbozo de los formaciones végétales del Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables, Caracas. Serie Informe Técnico, DGSIIA/IT/103. 36 pp.Google Scholar
  105. Huber, O. (1982b) Significance of savanna vegetation in the Amazon territory of Venezuela. p. 221–243. In: G. T. Prance, (ed.). Biological Diversification in the Tropics. Columbia University Press, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  106. Huber, O. and Alarcon, C. (1988) Mapa de vegetacion de Venezuela. Ministerio del Ambiente y de los recursos naturales renovables, Division de Vegetacion, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  107. Hueck, K. (1966) Die Wälder Südamerikas. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany. 422 pp.Google Scholar
  108. Irion, G. (1982) Mineralogical and geochemical contribution to climatic history in Central Amazonia during Quarternary time. Tropical Ecology 23: 76–85.Google Scholar
  109. Irion, G. (1984) Sedimentation and sediments of Amazonian rivers and evolution of the Amazonian landscape since Pliocene times, p. 201–214. In: H. Sioli (ed.). The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and its Basin. Dr. W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  110. Irmler, U. (1975) Ecological studies of the aquatic soil invertebrates in three inundation forests of Central Amazonia. Amazoniana 5: 337–409.Google Scholar
  111. Irmler, U. (1976) Zusammensetzung, Besiedlungsdichte und Biomasse der Makrofauna des Bodens in der emersen und submersen Phase zentralamazonischer Überschwemmungswälder. Biogeographica 7: 79–99.Google Scholar
  112. Irmler, U. (1977) Inundation forests types in the vicinity of Manaus. Biogeographica 8: 17–29.Google Scholar
  113. Irmler, U. (1979a) Considerations on structure and function of the “Central Amazonian inundation forest ecosystem” with particular emphasis on selected soil animals. Oecologia 43: 1–18.Google Scholar
  114. Irmler, U. (1979b) Abundance fluctuations and habitat changes of soil beetles in Central Amazonian inundation forests (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Staphylinidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 14: 1–16.Google Scholar
  115. Irmler, U. (1981) Überlebensstrategien von Tieren im saisonal überfluteten Überschwemmungswald. Zoologischer Anzeiger Jena 206: 26–38.Google Scholar
  116. Irmler, U. (1985) Temperature dependant generationcycle for the cicindelid beetle Pentacomia egregia CHAUD. (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of the Amazon valley. Amazoniana 9: 431–439.Google Scholar
  117. IUCN (1983) Global status of mangrove ecosystems. P. Saenger, E. J. Hegerl, and J. D. S. Davie (eds.). Commission on Ecology Paper 3. 88 pp.Google Scholar
  118. Janssen, A. (1986) Flora und Vegetation der Savannen von Humaitâ und ihre Standortbedingungen. Dissertationes Botanicae 93, J. Cramer, Berlin-Stuttgart, Germany. 325 pp.Google Scholar
  119. Junk, W. J. (1976) Faunal ecological studies in inundated areas and the definition of habitats and ecological niches. Animal Research and Development 4: 47–54.Google Scholar
  120. Junk, W. J. (1980) Areas inundâveis — urn desafio para limnologia. Acta Amazonica 10: 775–795.Google Scholar
  121. Junk, W. J. (1982a) Amazonian floodplains: Their ecology, present and potential use. Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop. 15: 285–301.Google Scholar
  122. Junk, W. J. (1982b) Zur Entwicklung aquatischer Makrophyten in Curuâ-Una, dem ersten Stausee in Zentralamazonien. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 95: 169–180.Google Scholar
  123. Junk, W. J. (1983) Ecology of swamps on the Middle Amazon, p. 269–294. In: A. J. P. Gore (ed.). Ecosystems of the World. Mires, Swamp, Bog, Fen and Moor. 3 Regional studies. Elsevier Publication Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  124. Junk, W. J. (1984a) Ecology of the vârzea, floodplain of Amazonian Whitewater rivers, p. 215–243. In: H. Sioli (ed.). The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty TropicalRiver and its Basin. Dr. W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  125. Junk, W. J. (1984b) Ecology, fisheries and fishculture in Amazonia, p. 443–476. In: H. Sioli (ed.). The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and its Basin. Dr. W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  126. Junk, W. J. (1985) The Amazon floodplain — a sink or source for organic carbon, p. 267–283. In: E. T. Degens, S. Kempe and R. Herrera (eds.). Transport of Carbon and Minerals in Major World Rivers. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Palaontologischen Institute der Universität Hamburg, Heft 58 SCOPE/UNEP, Sonderband, Germany.Google Scholar
  127. Junk, W. J. (1986) Temporary fat storage, an adapatation of some fish species to the waterlevel fluctuations and related environmental changes of the Amazon river. Amazoniana 9: 315–351.Google Scholar
  128. Junk, W. J. (1989a) The use of Amazonian floodplains under ecological perspective. Interciencia 14: 317–322.Google Scholar
  129. Junk, W. J. (1989b) Flood tolerance and tree distribution in central Amazonian floodplains. p. 41–64. In: L. B. Holm Nielsen, I. Nielsen, and H. Balslev (eds.). Tropical Forests: Botanical Dynamics, Speciation and Diversity. Academic Press, London, England.Google Scholar
  130. Junk, W. J. (1990) Die Krautvegetation der Überschwemmungsgebiete des Amazonas (Vârzea) bei Manaus und ihre Bedeutung für das ökosystem. Habilitationsschrift, Universität Hamburg, Germany. 349 pp.Google Scholar
  131. Junk, W. J. and Furch, K. (1984) The physical and chemical properties of Amazonian waters and their relationships with the biota, p. 3–17. In: G. T. Prance, and T. E. Lovejoy (eds.). Key Environments: Amazonia. Pergamon Press, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  132. Junk, W. J. and Howard-Williams, C. (1984) Ecology of aquatic macrophytes in Amazonia, p. 269–293. In: H. Sioli (ed). The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and its Basin. Dr. W. Junk, Publisher, The Hague, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  133. Junk, W. J. and Mello de, J. A. S. N. (1986) Impactos ecológicos das represas hidrelétricas na Amazonia brasileira. Tübinger Geographische Studien 95: 367–385.Google Scholar
  134. Junk, W. J., Robertson, B. A., Darwich, A. J. and Vieira, J. (1981) Investigates limnológicas e ictiológicas em Curuâ-Una, a primeira represa hidrelétrica na Amazônia central. Acta Amazonica 11: 687–716.Google Scholar
  135. Junk, W. J., Soares, M. G. M. and Carvalho, F. M. (1983) Distribution of fish species in a lake of the Amazon river floodplain near Manaus (Lago Camaleâo),with special reference to extreme oxygen conditions. Amazoniana 7: 397–431.Google Scholar
  136. Junk, W. J., Bayley, P. B. and Sparks, R. E. (1989) The floodpulse concept in river-floodplain systems, p. 110–127. In: D. P. Dodge (ed.). Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium (LARS). Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Science.Google Scholar
  137. Kalliola, R., Salo, J. and Mäkinen, Y. (1987) Regeneración natural de selvas en la Amazonia peruana 1: Dinamica fluvial y sucesion riberena. Memorias 18B, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.Google Scholar
  138. Kaufmann, R. and Hevert, F. (1973) El regimen pluviométrico del Rio Magdalena y su importancia para la ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta. Mitt. Inst. Colombo/Alemân, Invest. Cient. 7: 121–137.Google Scholar
  139. Klinge, H. and Herrera, R. (1978) Biomass studies in Amazon Caatinga forest in southern Venezuela. Tropical Ecology 19: 93–110.Google Scholar
  140. Klinge, H. and Herrera, R. (1983) Phytomass structure of natural plant communities on spodosols in southern Venezuela: The tall Amazon Caatinga forest. Vegetatio 53: 65–84.Google Scholar
  141. Klinge, H., Medina, E. and Herrera, R. (1977) Studies on the ecology of Amazon Caatinga forest in southern Venezuela. Acta Cientifica Venezulana 28: 270–276.Google Scholar
  142. Klinge, H., Furch, K., Harms, E. and Revilla, J. (1983) Foliar nutrient levels of native tree species from Central Amazonia. I. Inundation forests. Amazoniana 8: 19–46.Google Scholar
  143. Klinge, H., Furch, K. and Harms, E. (1984) Selected bioelements in bark and wood of native tree species from Central-Amazonian inundation forests. Amazoniana 9: 105–117.Google Scholar
  144. Knöppel, H. A. (1970) Food of central Amazonian fishes. Amazoniana 2: 257–352.Google Scholar
  145. Kosswig, C. and Villwock, W. (1965) Das Problem der intralakustrischen Speziation im Titicaca- und Llanaosee. Verhandlungen der Deutschen zoologischen Gessellschaft Kiel 1964 Zoologischer Anzeiger Supplement 28: 95–102.Google Scholar
  146. Kramer, D. L., Lindsey, C. C, Moodie, G. E. E. and Stevens, E. D. (1978) The fishes and the aquatic environment of the central Amazon basin, with particular reference to respiratory pattern. Canadian Journal Zoology 56: 717–729.Google Scholar
  147. Kubitzki, K. (1989) The ecogeographical differentiation of the Amazonian inundation forests. Plant Systematics and Evolution 162: 285–304.Google Scholar
  148. Lacerda, L. D., Pfeiffer, W. C, Ott, A. T., Silveira, E. G. (1988) Mercury contaminations in the Madeira River, Amazon — Hg inputs to the environment. Biotropica 21: 91–93.Google Scholar
  149. Lacerda, L. D., Pfeiffer, W. C, Malm, O., Souza, C. M. M., Silveira, E. G. and Bastos, W. R. (1990) Mercurio no meio ambiente: risco potencial das areas garimpeiras no Brasil. Acta Limnológica Brasileira 3: 969–977.Google Scholar
  150. Lanjouw, J. (1936) Studies on the vegetation of the Suriname savannahs and swamps. Nederlandsen Kruidkundig Archief 46: 823–851.Google Scholar
  151. Leenheer, J. A. and Santos, U. M. (1980) Consideraçôes sobre os processos de sedimentaçâo na âgua prêta âcida do Rio Negro (Amazonia Central). Acta Amazônica 10: 343–355.Google Scholar
  152. Leentvaar, P. (1966) The Brokopondo research project, Surinam, p. 33–42. In: R. H. Lowe-McConnell (ed.). Man-made Lakes. Academic Press, London, England.Google Scholar
  153. Leentvaar, P. (1973) Further developments in Lake Brokopondo, Surinam. Amazoniana 4: 1–8.Google Scholar
  154. Leentvaar, P. (1979) Additions and corrections to the Brokopondo study (Surinam). Amazoniana 6: 521–528.Google Scholar
  155. Leentvaar, P. (1984) The Brokopondo barrage lake in Suriname, South America, and the planned Kabalebo project in West Suriname, p. 49–56. In: J. R. Cord and P. Leentvaar (eds.). Hydroenvironmental Indices: A Review and Evaluation of Their Use in the Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Water Projects. IHP-D Project A 3.2, UNESCO, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  156. Lewis, W. M. Jr. and Weibezahn, F. H. (1976) Chemistry, energy flow and community structure in some Venezuelan fresh waters. Archiv für Hydrobiologie (Supplement) 50: 145–207.Google Scholar
  157. Lima, R. R. (1965) A agricultura nas vârzeas do estuârio do Amazonas. Boletim téenico do Instituto Agronômico del Norte 33: 1–164.Google Scholar
  158. Lindemann, J. C. (1953) The vegetation of the coastal region of Suriname. In: J. A. de Hulster, J. Lanjouw and F. W. Ostedorf (eds.). The Vegetation of Suriname. Vol. 1 Part 1. Von Eedenfouds, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 135 pp.Google Scholar
  159. Löffler, H. (1968) Tropical high mountain lakes. Their distribution, ecology and zoogeographical importance. Colloquium Geographicum, Bonn, 9: 57–75.Google Scholar
  160. Lozano, L. C. G. and Dister E. (1990) La planicie de inundacion del medio-bajo Magdalena: restauracion y conservacion de habitats.- Interciencia 15: 396–410.Google Scholar
  161. Loureiro, R. L., Souza Lima, J. P. and Fonzar, B. C. (1982) Vegetaçâo. p. 329–372. In: Brasil. Ministério das Minas e Energia. Projeto RAD AM/BRASIL. Folha SE, 21 Corumbâ e parte da folha SE 20. Levantamento de Recursos Naturais 27, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.Google Scholar
  162. Lowe-McConnell, R. H. (1964) The fishes of the Rupununi savanna district in British Guiana, South America. I. Ecological groupings of fish species and effects of the seasonal cycle on the fish. Journal of the Linnean Society Zoology 45: 103–144.Google Scholar
  163. Lowe-McConnell, R. H. (1975) Fish Communities in Tropical Freshwater. Longman, London, United Kingdom. 337 pp.Google Scholar
  164. Lugo, A.E. (1980) Mangrove ecosystems: successional or steady stateü Biotropica 12, Supplement Tropical Succession: 65–72.Google Scholar
  165. Magalhäes, C. and Walter, J. (1984) Desenvolvimento larval e distribuiçâo ecológica de seis espécies de camarôes (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) da regiäo amazônica. Resumos do 11 Congresso brasileiro de zoologia, Belém: 92–93.Google Scholar
  166. Mago, F. M. L. (1970) Lista de los peces de Venezuela incluendo un estudio preliminar sobre la ictiogeografïa del pais. Ministério de Agricultura y Cria, Oficina Nacional de Pesca, Caracas, Venezuela. 283 pp.Google Scholar
  167. Martinelli, L. A., Victoria, R. L., Devol, A. H., Richey, J. E. and Forsberg, B. R. (1989) Suspended sediment load in the Amazon basin: an overview. Geo-Journal 19: 381–389.Google Scholar
  168. Martyn, E. B. (1934) A note on the foreshore vegetation near Georgetown. Journal of Ecology 22: 292–298.Google Scholar
  169. Medina, E. (1980) Ecology of tropical American savannas: an ecophysiological approach, p. 297–319. In: D. R. Harris (ed.). Human Ecology in Savanna Environments. Academic Press Incorporation, London, England.Google Scholar
  170. Medina, E. and Sarmiento, G. (1979) Ecophysiological studies in the Trachypogon savanna (central Llanos), p. 612–619. In: UNESCO/UNEP/FAO (eds.). Tropical Grazing Land Ecosystems. Paris, France.Google Scholar
  171. Melack, J. M. (1984) Amazon floodplain lakes: Shape, fetch, and stratification. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Limnologie 22: 1278–1282.Google Scholar
  172. Melack, J. M. and Fisher, T. R. (1983) Diel oxygen variations and their ecological implications in Amazon floodplain lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 98: 422–442.Google Scholar
  173. Melack, J. M. and Fisher, T. R. (1990) Comparative limnology of tropical floodplain lakes with an emphasis on the Central Amazon. Acta Limnologica Brasileira 3: 1–48.Google Scholar
  174. Milliman, J. D. and Emery, K. O. (1968) Sealevels during the past 35,000 years. Science 162: 1121–1123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Moon, H. P. (1939) The geology and physiography of the Altiplano of Peru and Bolivia. Transaction of the Linnean Society of London: 27–43.Google Scholar
  176. Monheim, F. (1956) Beiträge zur Klimatologie und Hydrologie des Titicacabeckens. Heidelberger geographische Arbeiten 1: 1–152.Google Scholar
  177. Mouräo, G. M. (1989) Limnologia comparativa de très lagoas (duas “Baias” e uma “Salina”) do Pantanal de Nhecolandia, M. S. Thesis, University Säo Carlos-SP, Brasil. 135 pp.Google Scholar
  178. Newell, N. D. (1949) Geology of the Lake Titicaca region, Peru and Bolivia. Memoirs of the Geological Society of America 36: 1–111.Google Scholar
  179. Nikonov, M. N. and V. P. Sluka (1964) The distribution of peatbogs. 8th International Congress of Soil Science. Bucharest: 1047–1055.Google Scholar
  180. Nortcliff, S. and Thornes, J. B. (1981) Seasonal variations in the hydrology of a small forested catchment near Manaus, Amazonas, and the implications for its management, p. 31–57. In: R. Lai and E. W. Rüssel (eds.). Tropical Agricultural Hydrology. Watershed Management and Land Use. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, England.Google Scholar
  181. Novoa, D. F. (1982) Los recursos pesqueiros del rio Orinoco y su explotacion. Corp. Venez. de Guyana, Division de Desarrolo Agricola, Caracas, Venezuela. 386 pp.Google Scholar
  182. Novoa, D. F. (1989) The multispecies fisheries of the Orinoco river: Development, present status, and management strategies, p. 422–428. In D.P. Dodge (ed.). Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium (LARS). Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 106: 422–428.Google Scholar
  183. Novoa, D. F., Ramos, F. and Cartaya, E. (1984) Las pesquerias artesanales del Rio Orinoco. Sector Cainara -Cabruta, Parte 1. Memorias de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, Caracas: 163–215.Google Scholar
  184. Ojasti, J. (1973) Estudio biologico del chiguire o capibara. Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Caracas, Venezuela. 275 pp.Google Scholar
  185. Ojasti, J. (1978) The Relation Between Population and Production of the Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). Ph. D. thesis University Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. 204 pp.Google Scholar
  186. Ojasti, J. (1983) Ungulates and large rodents of South America, p. 427–439. In: F. Burliere (ed.). Ecosystems of the world 13: tropical savannas. Elsevier Scientific Publisher Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  187. Paolini, J. (1978) Charakterisierung und Dynamik von Huminstoffsystemen in der amazonischen Caatinga bei San Carlos de Rio Negro, Venezuela. Ph. D. thesis, University Göttingen, Germany. 134 pp.Google Scholar
  188. Paolini, J., Herrera, R. and Németh, A. (1983) Hydrochemistry of the Orinoco and Carom rivers. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg. SCOPE/UNEP Sonderband Heft 55: 223–236.Google Scholar
  189. Pannier, F. and Pannier, R. F. (1977) Interpretacion fisioecologica de la distribuicion de manglares en las costas del continente Suramericano. Interciencia, Caracas 2: 153–162.Google Scholar
  190. Patrick, R., Aldrich, F. A., Cairns Jr., J., Drouet, F., Hohn, M. H., Roback, S. S., Skuja, H., Spangler, P. J., Swabey, Y. H. and Whitford, L. A. (1966) The Catherwood Foundation Peruvian-Amazon Expedition: Limnological and Systematic Studies. Monographs. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. 495 pp.Google Scholar
  191. Perez, L. E. (1984) Uso del habitat por la comunidad de peces de um rio tropical asociado a urn bosque. Memorias de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, Caracas: 143–162.Google Scholar
  192. Petrere, Jr. M. (1978a) Pesca e esforço no Estado do Amazonas I. Esforço, e captura por unidade de esforço. Acta Amazonica 8: 439–454.Google Scholar
  193. Petrere, Jr. M. (1978b) Pesca e esforço no Estado do Amazonas. II. Locais, aparelhos de captura e estatistica de desembarque. Acta Amazonica 8, Supplement 2. 54 pp.Google Scholar
  194. Piedade, M. T. F. (1988) Biomassa, produtividade e atividade fotossintética de Echinochloa polystachya Hitchkock (Graminea = Poaceae), capim semi-aquâtico da vârzea Amazonica. Ph. D. Thesis, INPA/FUA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. 148 pp.Google Scholar
  195. Pinowski, J. and Morales, C. (1981) Aspectos ecologicos das aves de los modulos de Apure. Boletin de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales 36: 67–78.Google Scholar
  196. Pires, J. M. (1966) The estuaries of the Amazon and Oiapoque rivers and their floras, p. 211–218. In: UNESCO. Scientific problems of the humid tropical zone deltas and their implications. Proceedings Dacca Symposium.Google Scholar
  197. Plafker, G. (1964) Oriented lakes and lineaments of Northeastern Bolivia. Geological Society of America, Bulletin 75: 503–522.Google Scholar
  198. Prance, G. T. (1979) Notes on the vegetation of Amazonia III. The terminology of Amazonian forest types subject to inundation. Brittonia 31: 26–38.Google Scholar
  199. Prance, G. T. and Schaller, G. B. (1982) Preliminary study of some vegetation types of the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Brittonia 34: 228–251.Google Scholar
  200. Prance, G. T., Rodrigues, W. A. and Silva da, M. F. (1976) Inventârio florestal de um hectare de mata de terra firme km 30 da estrada Manaus-Itacoatiara. Acta Amazonica 6: 9–35.Google Scholar
  201. Putzer, H. (1984) The geological evolution of the Amazon basin and its mineral resources, p. 15–46. In: H. Sioli (ed.). The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and its Basin. Dr. W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  202. RADAM/Brasil (1974a): Levantamento de recursos naturais Vol. 5. (1974b): Levantamento de recursos naturais Vol. 6. (1975): Levantamento de recursos naturais Vol. 8. (1978): Levantamento de recursos naturais Vol. 18. (1981a): Levantamento de recursos naturais Vol. 22. (1981b): Levantamento de recursos naturais Vol. 25. Ministério das Minas e Energia, Departamento Nacional de Producäo Mineral, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Google Scholar
  203. Rai, H. and G. Hill (1984) Primary production ecosystem, p. 311–335. In: H. Sioli (ed.). The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and its Basin. Dr. W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  204. Ramia, M. (1959) Las savannas de Apure. Ministério de Agricultura y Cria, Caracas, Venezuela. 134 pp.Google Scholar
  205. Ramia, M. (1967) Tipos de sabanas en los Llanos de Venezuela. Boletin de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales 27: 264–288.Google Scholar
  206. Ramia, M. (1974) Plantas de las savannas lianeras. Monte Avila Editores, Caracas, Venezuela. 287 pp.Google Scholar
  207. Ramos, S., Danielewski, S. and Colomine, G. (1981) Contribuicion a la ecologia de los vertebrados acuaticos en esteros y bajios de sabanas moduladas. Boletin de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales 36: 79–103.Google Scholar
  208. Reiss, F. (1973) Zur Hydrographie und Makrobenthosfauna tropischer Lagunen in den Savannen des Territorio de Roraima, Nordbrasilien. Amazoniana 4: 367–378.Google Scholar
  209. Reiss, F. (1976a) Die Benthoszoozönosen zentralamazonischer Vârzea-een und ihre Anpassungen an die jahresperiodischen Wasserstandsschwankungen. Biogeographica 7: 125–135.Google Scholar
  210. Reiss, F. (1976b) Charakterisierung zentralamazonischer Seen aufgrund ihrer Makrobenthosfauna. Amazoniana 6: 123–134.Google Scholar
  211. Revilla, J. D. (1981) Aspectos floristicos e fitosociológicos da floresta inundavel (Igapó) Praia Grande, Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. M. Sc. thesis. CNPq, INPA, FUA, Manaus, Brazil.Google Scholar
  212. Ribeiro, M. C. L. de B. (1983) As migracöes dos jaraquis (Pisces, Prochilodontidae) no Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. M. Sc. thesis, CNPq, INPA, FUA, Manaus, Brazil. 192 pp.Google Scholar
  213. Richey, J. E., Devol, A. H., Wofsy, S. C, Victoria, R. and Ribeiro, M. N. G. (1988) Biogenic gases and the oxidation and reduction of carbon in Amazon river and floodplain lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 33: 551–561.Google Scholar
  214. Richey, J. E., Nobre, C. and Deser, C. (1989) Amazon river discharge and climate variability — 1903 to 1985. Science 246: 101–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Richey, J. E., Hedges, J. I., Devol, A. H., Quay, P. D., Victoria, R., Martinelli, L. A. and Forsberg, B. R. (1990) Biogeochemistry of carbon in the Amazon river. Limnology and Oceanography 35: 352–371.Google Scholar
  216. Rodriguez, G. (1973) El sistema de Maracaibo. Biologia y ambiente. IVIC, Caracas, Venezuela. 395 pp.Google Scholar
  217. Ruellan, F. (1957) Espedicöes geomorfológicas no Territorio do Rio Branco. CNPq, INPA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 170 pp.Google Scholar
  218. Ruthsatz, B. (1977) Pflanzengesellschaften und ihre Lebensbedingungen in den andinen Halbwüsten Nordwest-Argentiniens. Dissertationes Botanicae 39, Ganter Verlag, Vaduz, Schweiz. 204 pp.Google Scholar
  219. Saint-Paul, U. and Soares, M. G. M. (1987) Diurnal distribution and behavioral responses of fishes to extreme hypoxia in an Amazon floodplain lake. Environmental Biology of Fishes 20: 91–104.Google Scholar
  220. Saint-Paul, U. and Soares, M. G. M. (1988) Ecomorphological adaptation to oxygen deficiency in Amazon floodplains by Serrasalmid fish of the genus Mylossoma. Journal Fisherie Biology 32: 231–236.Google Scholar
  221. Salati, E. and Marques, J. (1984) Climatology of the Amazon region, p. 85–126. In: H. Sioli (ed.). The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and its Basin. Dr. W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  222. Salinas, P. J. (1975) Observaciones ecologicas sobre los modulos de Apure. Necesidad de una estacion de estudios ecologicos. Re vista Forestal Venezolana, University de los Andes, Merida: 131–155.Google Scholar
  223. Salo, Y., Kalliola, R., Häkkinen, I., Mäkinen, Y., Niemelä, P., Puhakka, M. and Coley, P. D. (1986) River dynamics and the diversity of Amazon lowland forest. Nature: 1005–1011.Google Scholar
  224. Santosdos, A. (1983) Limnologia do sistema Tocantins-Araguaia: aspectos fisicos e biogeoquimicos. Ph. D. thesis, Sâo Carlos, Brazil. 257 pp.Google Scholar
  225. Sarmiento, G. (1983) The savannas of tropical America, p. 245–288. In: F. Burliere (ed.). Ecosystems of the World 13: Tropical Savannas. Elsevier Scientific Publication Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  226. Sarmiento, G., Monasterio, M. and Silva, J. (1971) Reconocimento ecologico de los Llanos Occidentales. IV. El oeste del Estado Apure. Acta Cientifica Venezolana 22: 170–180.Google Scholar
  227. Schmidt, G. W. (1972) Chemical properties of some waters in the tropical rain-forest region of Central Amazonia along the new road Manaus-Caracarai. Amazoniana 3: 199–207.Google Scholar
  228. Schmidt, G. W. (1973) Primary production of phytoplankton in the three types of Amazonian waters. III. Primary productivity of phytoplankton in a tropical floodplain lake of Central Amazonia, Lago do Castanho, Amazonas, Brazil. Amazoniana 4: 379–404.Google Scholar
  229. Schmidt, G. W. (1976) Primary production of phytoplankton in the three types of Amazonian waters. IV. On the primary productivity of phytoplankton in a bay of the lower Rio Negro (Amazonas, Brasil). Amazoniana 5: 517–528.Google Scholar
  230. Scott, D. A. and Carbonell, M. (1986) A Directory of Neotropical Wetlands. IUCN Cambridge and IWRB Slimbridge, England. 665 pp.Google Scholar
  231. Seidenschwarz, F. (1986) Pioniervegetation im Amazonasgebiet Perus. Ein pflanzensoziologischer Vergleich von vorandinem Flußufer und Kulturland. Monographs on Agriculture and Ecology of Warmer Climates. Vol. 3. Margraf, Tropical Scientific Books, Gaimersheim, West Germany. 226 pp.Google Scholar
  232. Shackleton, N. J. and Opdyke, N. D. (1973) Oxygen isotope and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of equatorial Pacific core5 V28–238: Oxygen isotope temperatures and ice volumes on a 105 and 106 year scale. Quarternary Research 3: 39–55.Google Scholar
  233. Silva da, C. J. (1990) Influência da variacäo do nivel d’âgua sobre a estrutura e funcionamento de uma area alagâvel do Pantanal Matogrossense (Pantanal de Baräo de Melgaço), Municipio de Santo Antonio de Le verger e Baräo de Melgaço MT).- Ph.D. thesis, University Sao Carlos-SP, Brasil. 251 pp.Google Scholar
  234. Sioli, H. (1950) Das Wasser im Amazonasgebiet. Forschungen und Fortschritte 26: 274–280.Google Scholar
  235. Sioli, H. (1965) Bemerkungen zur Typologie amazonischer Flüsse. Amazoniana 1: 74–83.Google Scholar
  236. Sioli, H. (1967) Studies in Amazonian waters. Atlas do Simpósio sobre a biota Amazônica 3: 9–50.Google Scholar
  237. Sioli, H. (éd.) (1984a) The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and its Basin. Dr. W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 763 pp.Google Scholar
  238. Sioli, H. (1984b) The Amazon and its main affluents: Hydrography, morphology of the river courses, and river types, p. 127–165. In: H. Sioli (ed.). The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and its Basin. Dr. W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  239. Smith, N. J. H. (1979) A pesca no rio Amazonas. CNPq/INPA, Manaus, Brasil. 154 pp.Google Scholar
  240. Soares, M. G. M., Almeida, R. G. and Junk, W. J. (1986) The trophic status of the fish fauna in Lago Camaleâo, a floodplain lake in the middle Amazon. Amazoniana 9: 511–526.Google Scholar
  241. Tarifa, J. R. (1986) O sistema climatico do Pantanal. Da compreensao do sistema à definiçâo de prioridade de pesquisa climatológica. Anais do Primeiro Simpósio sobre Recursos Naturais e Sócio-economicos do Pantanal. Corumbâ 1984. Departamento de Difusäo de Technologia, Documento No. 5, EMBRAPA, Brasilia, Brazil: 9–27.Google Scholar
  242. Tricart, J. (1969) Le salar del Huasco. Revue de géomorphologie dynamique 19: 49–84Google Scholar
  243. Van der Hammen, T. and Gonzalez, E. (1960) Upper Pleistocene and Holocene climate and vegetation of the “sabana de Bogota” (Columbia, South America). Leidse Geologische medelingen 25: 261–31Google Scholar
  244. Van der Hammen, T. and Gonzalez, E. (1965) A late-glacial and holocene pollen diagram from Cienaga del Visitador (Departamento Boyaca, Columbia). Leidse Geologische Nedelingen 32: 193–201.Google Scholar
  245. Van der Heide, J. (1982) Lake Brokopondo: Filling Phase Limnology of a Man-made Lake in the Humid Tropics. Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 428 pp.Google Scholar
  246. Vann, J. H. (1959) The Physical Geography of the Lower Coastal Plain of the Guiana Coast. Technical Report no 1, Project NR 388–029 Contract 1575 (02), Geography Branch, Office of Naval Research, Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. 91 pp.Google Scholar
  247. Vann, J. H. (1969) Landforms, Vegetation and Sea Level Change Along the Guiana Coast of South America. Technicol Report no 3, Project NR 388–028, Contract 4501 (00), Geography Branch, Office of Naval Research, State University College, Buffalo, New York, USA. 128 pp.Google Scholar
  248. Vasquez, E. (1984) El zooplancton de la seccion baja de um rio de aguas negras (rio Caroni) y de um embalse hidroelectrico (Macagua I), Venezuela. Memorias de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, Caracas: 109–129.Google Scholar
  249. Vasquez, E. and Sanchez, L. (1984) Variacion estacional del plancton en dos sectores del rio Orinoco y uma laguna de inundacion adjacente. Memorias de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, Caracas: 11–33.Google Scholar
  250. Victoria, R. L., Martinelli, L. A., Richey, J. E., Devol, A. H., Forsberg, B. R. and Ribeiro, M. N. G. (1989) Spatial and temporal variations in soil chemistry on the Amazon floodplain. Geo-Journal 19: 45–52.Google Scholar
  251. Vila, M. A. (1955) Aspectos geographicos del Estado Apure. Corp. Venezuela Fomento, Caracas, Venezuela. 263 pp.Google Scholar
  252. Villwock, W. (1963) Die Gattung Orestias (Pisces Microcyprini) und die Frage der intralacustrischen Speziation im Titicaca Seengebiet. Verhandlungen der Deutschen zoologischen Gesellschaft Wien: 610–624.Google Scholar
  253. Villwock, W. (1972) Gefahren für die endemische Fischfauna durch Einführungsversuche und Akklimatisation von Fremdfischen am Beispiel des Titicaca-Sees (Peru-Bolivien) und des Lanao-Sees (Mindanao/Philippinen). Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Limnologie 18: 1227–1234.Google Scholar
  254. Walter, H. and Medina, E. (1971) Caracterizacion climatica de Venezuela sobre la base de climadiagramas de estaciones particulares. Boletin de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales 29: 211–240.Google Scholar
  255. Walter, H., Harnickell, E. and Mueller-Dombois, D. (1975) Klimadiagramm-Karten der einzelnen Kontinente und die ökologische Klimagliederung der Erde. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, Karte 2.Google Scholar
  256. Wassmann, R., Thein, U. G., Whiticar, M. J., Rennenberg, H., Seiler, W.and Junk, W. J. (1992) Methane emissions from the Amazon floodplain: Characterization of production and transport. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 6: 3–13.Google Scholar
  257. Welcomme, R. L. (1979) Fisheries Ecology of Floodplain Rivers. The Chancer Press Ltd., Bungay, Suffolk, United Kingdom. 317 pp.Google Scholar
  258. West, R. C. (1956) Mangrove swamps of the Pacific coast of Colombia. American Association of American Geography 46: 98–121.Google Scholar
  259. West, R. C. (1977) Tidal salt-marsh and mangal formations of Middle and South America, p. 193–213. In: V. J. Chapmann (ed.). Ecosystems of the World 1: Wet Coastal Ecosystems. Elsevier Scientific Publisher Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  260. Wilhelmy, H. (1958) Das Große Pantanal. Die Umschau 18: 555–559.Google Scholar
  261. Williams, L. (1940) Botanical exploration in the middle and lower Caura, Venezuela. Tropical Woods 62: 1–20.Google Scholar
  262. Williams, L. (1941) Forests of the Venezuelan Guiana. Tropical Woods 68: 13–40.Google Scholar
  263. Worbes, M. (1983) Vegetationskundliche Untersuchungen zweier Überschwemmungswälder in Zentralamazonien -vorläufige Ergebnisse. Amazoniana 8: 47–65.Google Scholar
  264. Worbes, M. (1985) Lebensbedingungen und Artengefüge zentralamazonischer Überschwemmungswälder. Ph. D. thesis, Universität Göttingen, Germany. 166 pp.Google Scholar
  265. Worbes, M. (1989) Growth rings, increment and age of trees in inundation forests, savannas and a mountain forest in the Neotropics. IAWA Bulletin n.s. 10: 109–122.Google Scholar
  266. Worbes, M. and Junk, W.J. (1989) Dating tropical trees by means of 14C from bomb tests. Ecology 70: 503–507.Google Scholar
  267. Zaret, T. and Rand, A. S. (1971) Competition in tropical stream fishes: support for the competitive exclusion. Ecology 52: 336–342.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang J. Junk

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations