The structure of wood: an overview

  • B. G. Butterfield


Commercial timbers fall into two categories — softwoods and hardwoods. These terms date from the medieval timber trade and were originally meant to give an indication of the hardness of the wood. However, the use of these terms nowadays is rather confusing since the distinction between the two groups of timbers is botanical rather than based on the true hardness of wood.


Growth Ring Compression Wood Tension Wood Perforation Plate Vessel Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Further Reading

  1. Butterfield, B.G. and Meylan, B.A. (1980) Three-dimensional Structure of Wood, 2nd edn, Chapman & Hall, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carlquist, S.J. (1988) Comparative Wood Anatomy: Systematic, Ecological and Evolutionary Aspects of Dicotyledon Wood, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  3. Core, H.A., Côté, W.A. and Day, A.C. (1979) Wood Structure and Identification 2nd edn, Syracuse Univ. Press, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  4. Esau, K. (1965) Plant Anatomy, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Haygreen, J.G. and Bowyer, J.L. (1989) Forest Products and Wood Science: An Introduction 2nd edn, Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames.Google Scholar
  6. Panshin, A.J. and de Zeeuw C. (1980) Textbook of Wood Technology, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Tsoumis, G. T. (1991) Science and Technology of Wood: Structure, Properties, Utilization, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Wilson, K. and White, D.J.B. (1986) The Anatomy of Wood: its Diversity and Variability, Stobart & Son, London.Google Scholar
  9. Zimmermann, M.H. (1983) Xylem Structure and the Ascent of Sap, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© J.C.F. Walker 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. G. Butterfield

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