Advertisement

The Immunobiology of Chorionic Gonadotrophin

  • J. P. Hearn
Chapter

Abstract

The last 10 years have seen a revolution in our understanding of the structure and functions of chorionic gonadotrophin (CG). Until the early seventies it was thought to be a glycoprotein hormone restricted to pregnancy in primates. It was known to be secreted by the trophoblast and assumed to be a major component of the luteotrophic stimulus that supports the corpus luteum of primates until the luteoplacental shift is completed1–3. While this role in early pregnancy, backed by a great deal of circumstantial evidence, is still accepted, we are now fairly certain that the hormone is restricted neither to pregnancy nor to primates.

Keywords

Antibody Titre Early Pregnancy Corpus Luteum Chorionic Gonadotrophin Passive Immunization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Csapo, A. I., Pulkkinen, M. O., Ruttner, B., Sauvage, J. P. and Wiest, W. G. (1972). The significance of the human corpus luteum in pregnancy maintenance. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 112, 1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Short, R. V. (1969). Implantation and the maternal recognition of pregnancy. In Ciba Foundation Symposium on Fetal Autonomy, pp. 2–26. ( London: Churchill )CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heap, R. B. and Perry, J. S. (1974). The maternal recognition of pregnancy. Br. J. Hosp. Med., July, 8Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aschheim, S. and Zondek, B. (1927). Hypophysenvorderlappenhormon und Ovarialhormon im Ham von Schwangeren. KIM. Wochenschr., 6, 1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aschner, B. (1913). Ueber brunstartige Erscheinungen (Hyperämie und Hämorrhagie am weiblichen Genitale) nach subkutaner Injektion von Ovarial oder Placentarextrakt. Arch. Gynaekol., 99, 534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stevens, V. C. and Crystle, C. D. (1973). Effect of immunisation with hapten-coupled hCG on the human menstrual cycle. Am. J. Obstet., 42, 485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stevens, V. C. (1975). Antifertility effects from immunisation with intact, subunits and fragments of hCG. In Edwards, R. G. and Johnson, M. H. (eds.) Physiological Effects of Immunity Against Reproductive Hormones, pp. 249–274. ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press )Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Heap, R. B., Flint, A. P. and Gadsby, J. E. (1979). Role of embryonic signals in the establishment of pregnancy. Br. Med. Bull., 35, 129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Knobil, E. (1973). On the regulation of the primate corpus luteum. Biol. Reprod., 8, 246Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hearn, J. P. (1978). The endocrinology of reproduction in the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. In Kleiman, D. G. (ed.) Biology and Conservation of Marmosets, pp 163–171. ( Washington: Smithsonian Institution )Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Meyer, R. K., Wolfe, R. and Arslan, M. (1968). Implantation and maintenance of pregnancy iin progesterone treated ovariectomised monkeys (Macaca mulatto). Proc. 2nd Mt. Cong. Primatology, Vol. 2, 30Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saxena, B. B., Hasan, S. H., Haour, F. and Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M. (1974). Radioreceptor assay of human chorionic gonadotropin: detection of early pregnancy. Science, N. Y., 184, 793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fishel, S. B. and Surani, ‘M. A. H. (1980). Evidence for the synthesis and release of a glycoprotein from mouse blastocysts. J. Reprod. Fertil., 59, 181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Landesman, R. and Saxena, B. B. (1976). Results of the first radioreceptor assays for the determination of human chorionic gonadotrophin. Fertil. Steril., 27, 357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ortiz, M. E. and Croxatto, H. B. (1979). Observations on the transport, ageing and development of ova in the human genital tract. In Talwar, G. P. (ed.) Recent Advances in Reproduction and Fertility Control, pp. 307–318. ( Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland )Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reyes, F. I., Winter, J. S. D., Faiman, C. and Hobson, W. C. (1975). Serial serum levels of gonadotrophins, prolactin and sex steroids in the non-pregnant and pregnant chimpanzee. Endocrinology, 96, 1447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hendrickx, A. G. and Enders,` A. C. (1980). Implantation in non-human primates: 2. Endocrinology. In Anand Kumar, T. C. (ed.) Non-human Primate Models for Study of Human Reproduction,pp. 109–115. (Basle: Karger)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Atkinson, L. E., Hotchkiss, J., Fritz, G. R., Surve, A. H., Neill, H. D. and Knobil, E. (1975). Circulating levels of steroids and chorionic gonadotropin during pregnancy in the rhesus monkey, with special attention to the rescue of the corpus luteum in early pregnancy. Biol. Reprod., 12, 335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hearn, J. P. (1980). The endocrinology and timing of implantation in the marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus. In Leroy, F. (ed.) Ovum Implantation. ( Basle: Karger )Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wide, L. and Hobson, B. (1977). Chromatographic studies on a chorionic gonadotropic activity in the placenta of the rat, mouse and hamster. Uppsala J. Med. Sci. Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    H aour, F., Tell, G. and Sanchez, P. (I976). Mise en évidence et dosage d’ une gonadotrophine chorionique chez le rat (rCG). C. R. Acad. Sci. (D) Paris, 282 (12), 1183Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Madhwa Raj, H. G. (1976). Antigonadotrophins and the endocrine function of the ovary. In Edwards, R. G. and Johnson, M. H. (eds.) Physiological Effects of Immunity against Reproductive Hormones, pp. 187–204. ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press )Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gombe, S. and Else, J. (1980). New models for studies in human fertility from African mammals. In Serio, M. (ed.) Animal Model sin Human Reproduction. ( New York: Pergamon Press )Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Braunstein, G. D., Rasor, J., Adler, D., Danzer, H. and Wade, M. E. (1976). Serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels throughout normal pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 126, 678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jaffe, R. (1980). Fetal differentiation. In Serio, M. (ed.) Animal Models in Human Reproduction. ( New York: Pergamon Press )Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Borland, R., Loke, Y. and Wilson, D. (1975). Immunological privilege resulting from endocrine activity of the trophoblast in vivo. In Edwards, R. G., Howe, C. and Johnson, M. H. (eds.) Immunology of the Trophoblast, pp. 157–170. ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press )Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Loke, Y. W., Brook, S. S. and Allen, G. E. (1977). Surface IgM on lymphocytes from pregnant women. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 127, 847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Amoroso, E. C. and Perry, J. S. (1975). The existence during gestation of an immunological buffer zone at the interface between maternal and foetal tissues. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B., 271, 343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Morisada, M., Yamaguchi, H. and lizuka, R. (1976). Immunobiological function of the syncytiotrophoblast: a new theory. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 125, 3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Muchmore, A. V. and Blaese, R. M. (1977) Immunoregulatory properties of fractions from human pregnancy urine: evidence that hCG is not responsible. J. Immunol., 118, 881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Batta, S. K. and Channing, C. P. (1979). Preimplantation of rhesus monkey blastocyst: secretion of substance capable of stimulating progesterone secretion by granulosa cell cultures. Life Sci., 25, 2057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Braunstein, G. D., Vaitukaitis, J. L., Carbone, P. P. and Ross, G. T. (1973). Ectopic production of hCG by neoplasms. Ann. Intern. Med., 78, 39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vaitukaitis, J. L. (1977). Human chorionic gonadotropin. In Fuchs, F. and Hopper, A. (eds.) Endocrinology of Pregnancy, 2nd edn, pp. 63–75 ( New York: Harper and Row )Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Braunstein, G. D. (1979). hCG in non-trophoblastic tumours and tissues. In Talwar, G. P. (ed.) Advances in Reproduction and Regulation of Fertility, pp. 389–398. ( Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland )Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ghosh, M. K. and Cox, R. P. (1976). Production of hCG in HeLa cell cultures. Nature (London), 259, 415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rosen, S. W., Waintraub, B. D. and Aronson, S. (1978). Ectopic hCG production by malignant cell lines. Clin. Res., 26, 537AGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hearn, J. P. and Lunn, S. F. (1975). The reproductive biology of the marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus. In Perkins, F. J. and O’Donoghue, P. N. (eds.) Breeding Primates for Developmental Biology. Laboratory Animal Handbooks, 6, 191Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hearn, J. P., Abbott, D. H., Chambers, P. C., Hodges, J. K. and Lunn, S. F. (1978), Use of the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, in reproductive research. Primates Med., 10, 40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chambers, P. L. and Hearn, J. P. (1979). Peripheral plasma levels of progesterone, oestradiol-170, oestrone, testosterone, androstenedione and chorionic gonadotrophin during pregnancy in the marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus. J. Reprod. Fertil., 56, 23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Abbott, D. H. and Hearn, J. P. (1978). Physical, hormonal and behavioural aspects of sexual development in the marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus. J. Reprod. Fertil., 53, 155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hearn, J. P., Short, R. V. and Lunn, S. F. (1976). The effects of immunising marmoset monkeys against the 0-subunit of hCG. In Edwards, R. G. and Johnson, M. F. (eds.) Physiological Consequences of Immunity against Hormones, pp. 229–247. ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press )Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hearn, J. P. (1976). Immunisation against pregnancy. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B., 195, 149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hearn, J. P. (1978). Immunological interference with the maternal recognition of pregnancy in primates. In Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy. (Ciba Foundation Symposium 64), pp. 353–376. ( Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland )Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hearn, J. P. (1979). Long term suppression of fertility by immunisation with hCG-0 subunit and its reversibility in female marmoset monkeys. In Talwar, G. P. (ed.) Advances in Reproduction and Regulation of Fertility, pp. 427–438. ( Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland )Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Talwar, G. P., Sharma, N. C., Dubey, S. K., Salahuddin, M., Das, S., Ramakrishnan, S., Kumar, S. and Hingorani, V. (1976). Isoimmunization against human chorionic gonadotropin with conjugates of processed 0-subunit of the hormone and tetanus toxoid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 73, 218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thanavala, Y. M., Hearn, J. P., Hay, F. C. and Hulme, M. (1979). Characterisation of the immunological response in marmoset monkeys immunised against hCG 3-subunit and its relationship with their subsequent fertility. J. Reprod. Immunol., 1, 263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stevens, V. C. (1976). Perspectives of development of a fertility control vaccine from hormonal antigen of the trophoblast. In Development of Vaccines for Fertility Regulation, pp. 93–110. ( Copenhagen: Scriptor )Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Talwar, G. P., Ramakrishnan, S., Das, C., Dubey, S. K., Salahuddin, M., Shastri, N.. Tandon, A. and Om Singh (1979). Anti-hCG immunisation. In Talwar, G. P. (ed.) Recent Advances in Reproduction and Regulation of Fertility, pp. 453–466. ( Amsterdam: Elsevier/ North Holland )Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hingorani, V. and Kumar, S. (1979). Anti-hCG immunisation–phase 1 clinical trials. In Talwar, G. P. (ed.) Recent Advances in Reproduction and Regulation of Fertility, pp. 467–471. ( Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland )Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chen, H. C. and Hodgen, G. D. (1977). Primate chorionic gonadotrophins. Antigenic similarities to the unique carboxyl terminal peptide of hCG-13 subunit. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 43, 1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hobson, B. and Wide, L. (1972). A comparison between chorionic gonadotrophins extracted from human, rhesus monkey and marmoset placentae. J. Endocrinol., 55, 363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wass, M., McCann, K. and Bagshaw, K. D. (1978). Isolation of antibodies to hCG/LH from human sera. Nature (London), 274, 368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pala, A., Donini, P. and Carenza, L. (1979). Characterisation of antibodies against hCG-ß raised in rabbits and in humans. In Talwar, G. P. (ed.) Advances in Reproduction and Regulation of Fertility, pp. 439–452. ( Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland )Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Halban, J. (1905). Die innere secretion von Ovarium und Placenta und ihre Bedeutung fur die Function der milchdruse. Arch. Gynaekol., 75, 353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Canfield, R. E., Morgan, F. J., Kammerman, S., Bell, J. J. and Agosto, G. M. (1971). Studies of human gonadotrophin. Rec. Prog. Horm. Res., 27, 121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pierce, J. G., Liao, T. H., Howard, S. M., Shome, B. and Cornell, J. S. (1971). Studies on the structure of thyrotrophin: its relationship to luteinising hormone. Rec. Prog. Horm. Res., 27, 165PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© MTP Press Limited 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. P. Hearn

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations