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The Pharmacology and Potential Clinical Applications of Somatostatin and its Analogues

Chapter
Part of the Progress in Hormone Biochemistry and Pharmacology book series (PRHO, volume 1)

Abstract

Somatostatin was discovered in 1971, by Guillerain and his colleagues during their search for the hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor. A peptide was found in ovine hypothalamus which inhibited the release of growth hormone from cultured anterior pituitary cells.1,2 Determination of its amino acid sequence3 indicated that it was a tetradecapeptide with a molecular weight of 1639 (Figure 1). An identical peptide was later isolated from porcine hypothalamus by Schally and his coworkers.4 The peptide was named somatostatin in the belief that it was a hypothalamic releasing factor whose sole function was to inhibit the secretion of growth hormone. It soon became evident, however, that a peptide with identical immunologic characteristics and biologic activity was present in the D cells of pancreatic islets, in D-like cells of the gastrointestinal tract, in parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland, and in extrahypothalamic neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous system in various species, including man. Moreover, studies employing synthetic somatostatin5 demonstrated that the peptide possessed a wide spectrum of biologic activities in addition to its inhibition of growth hormone.

Keywords

Growth Hormone Pancreatic Islet Insulin Release Glucagon Secretion Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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