Regulation of Energy Balance

  • Michele Macedonio
Part of the Sports Medicine and Health Science book series (SMHS)


Preliminary to any discussion of weight control is a definition of terms. Although often used synonymously, overweight and obesity are not identical. Overweight denotes an excess of body weight relative to standards for height, whereas obesity refers to a surplus in body fat. Body fat is the quantity of triglyceride and other fats which the body contains and is the major constituent of adipose tissue.


Caloric Restriction Caloric Intake Weight Regulation High Sucrose Diet Weight Control Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Keys, A., and Brozek, J. Body fat in adult man. Physiol Rev. 33: 245–325, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stunkard, A. M. (ed.) Obesity. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co., 1980.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brody, S. Bioenergetics and Growth. New York, Reinhold Publishing Corp., p. 12, 1945.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Foch, T. T., and McClearn, G. E. Genetics, Body Weight and Obesity. In A. S. Stunkard (ed.), Obesity. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders, 1980.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cruce, J. A. F., Greenwood, J. R. C., Johnson, P. R., et al. Genetics versus hypothalmic obesity: studies of intake and dietary manipulation. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 97:295–301, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ten-State Nutrition Survey, 1968–1970. U.S. DHEW, Publication No. (HSM) 72-8131.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Garn, S., and Clark, D. C. Nutrition growth development and maturation: findings from the Ten-State Nutrition Survey of 1968–1970. Pediatrics 56:306–319, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mayer, J. Decreased activity and energy balance in the hereditary obesity-diabetes syndrome of mice, Science 117:504–505, 1953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Teitelbaum, P. Disturbances in feeding and drinking behavior after hypothalmic lesions. In M. A. Jones (ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln Nebraska, University of Nebraska Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoebel, B. G., and Teitelbaum, P. Weight regulation in normal and hypothalmic hyperphagic rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 61:189–193, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frohman, A. L., and Bernadis, L. L. Effect of hypothalmic stimulation on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon levels. Amer. J. Physiol. 221:1596–1603, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bray, G. A. The Obese Patient, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co., 1976.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Friedman, M. I. Effects of alloran diabetes on hypothalmic hyperphagia and obesity. Amer. J. Physiol. 222:174–178, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hernandez, L., and Hoebel, B. G. Basic mechanism of feeding and weight regulation. In A. S. Stunkard (ed.), Obesity. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co., 1980.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ellison, G. D., and Sorenson, C. A. Two feeding syndromes following surgical isolation of the hypothalmus in rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 70:173–188, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kennedy, G. C. The role of depot fat in the hypothalmic control of food intake in the rat. Proc. Royal Soc. J. 140:578–592, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liebelt, R. A., Ichinae, S., and Nicholson, N. Regulatory influences of adipose tissue on food intake and body weight. Ann. N. Y. Academy Sci. 131:559–582, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McCane, R. Food, Growth and Time. Lancet 2:671–676, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Faust, I. M., Johnson, P. R., and Hirsch, J. Noncompensation of adipose mass in partially lipectomized mice or rats. Amer. J. Physiol. 231:538–544, 1976.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kral, J. Surgical reduction of adipose tissue in the male Sprague-Dawley rat. Effects on body composition, adipose tissue cellularity and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Amer. J. Physiol 231:1090, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hirsch, J., and Knittle, J. L. Cellularity of obese and non-obese human adipose tissue. Fed. Proc. 29:1516–1521, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hager, A., Sjostrom, L., Arvidsson, B., et al. Body fat and adipose tissue cellularity in infants: a longitudinal study. Metab. 26:607–614, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sjöström, L. Fat cells and body weight. In A. S. Stunkard (ed.), Obesity. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co., 1980.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Faust, I. M., Johnson, P., Stern, J., et al. Diet-induced adipocyte number increase in adult rats: a new model of obesity. Amer. J. Physiol. 235:E 299-E 286, 1978.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Johnson, P. R., Stern, J., Gruen, R., et al. Development of adipose depot cellularity, plasma insulin, pancreatic insulin release and insulin resistance in the Zucker obese female rat. Fed. Proc. 35:657, 1976.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bjorntrop, P., and Sjostrom, L. Number and size of adipose tissue fat cells in relation to metabolism in human obesity. Metabolism 20:703–713, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hirsch, J., and Batchelor, B. Adipose cellularity in human obesity. Clinics in Endocrinol. Metab. 5:299–311, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sjostrom, L., and Bjorntrop, P. Body composition and adipose tissue cellularity in human obesity. Acta Med. Scand. 195:201–211, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bjorntrop, P., Gustafson, A., and Persson, B. Adipose tissue fat cell size and number in relation to metabolism in endogenous hypertriglyceridemia, Acta Med. Scand. 190:363–367, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Matter, S., et al. Body fat content and serum lipid levels. J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 77:149–152, 1980.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Krotkiewski, M., Sjostrom, L., Bjorntrop, P., et al. Adipose tissue cellularity in relation to prognosis for weight reduction. Internatl. J. Obesity 1:395–416, 1977.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brooks, C., and Lambert, E. F. A study of the effect of limitation of food intake and the method of feeding on the rate of weight gain during hypothalmic obesity in the albino rat. Amer. J. Physiol. 147: 695–707, 1946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cohn, C., and Joseph, D. Influence of body weight and body fat on appetite of “Normal” lean and obese rats. Yale J. Biol. Med. 34: 598–607, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Khosha, T., Billewicz, W. Z. Measurement of changes in body weight. Brit. J. Nutr. 18:227–239, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Robinson, M. D., and Watson, P. E. Day to day variation in body weight of young women. Brit. J. Nutr. 19:225–235, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Keyes, A., Brozek, J., Henschel, A., et al. The Biology of Human Starvation. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sims, E. A., and Horton, E. S. Endocrin and metabolic adaptation of obesity and starvation. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 21:1455–1470, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mitchel, J. S., and Keesey, R. E. Defense of a lowered body weight maintenance level by lateral hypothalamically lesioned rats: evidence from a restriction-feeding regimen. Physiol. Behavior 18:1121–1125, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Powley, T. L., and Keesey, R. E. Relationship of body weight to the lateral hypothalmic feeding syndrome. J. Comp. Physiol. 70:25–36, 1970.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Keesey, R. E., and Boyle, P. C. Effects of quinine adulteration upon body weight of LH-lesioned and intact male rat. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 84:38–46, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nisbitt, R. E. Hunger, obesity and the ventromedial hypothalmus. Psychol. Rev. 79:433–453, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schacter, S. Some extraordinary facts about obese humans and rats. Amer. Psychol. 26:129–144, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bray, G. A. Effect of caloric restriction on energy expenditure in obese patients. Lancet 2:397–398, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Apfelbaum, M., Bostsarron, J., and Lacatis, D. Effect of caloric restriction and excessive caloric intake on energy expenditure. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 24:1405–1409, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brownell, K. D., and Stunkard, A. J. Physical activity in the development and control of obesity. In A. J. Stunkard (ed.) Obesity. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders, 1980.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., and Katch, V. L. Exercise Physiology. Philadelphia, Lea and Febiger, 1981.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Welsch, S., and Martson, R. M. Review of trends in food use in the U.S., 1909–1980. J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 81:120–125, 1980.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Scalfani, A. Dietary Obesity. In A. J. Stunkard (ed.), Obesity. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders, 1980.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Scalfani, A., and Springer, D. Dietary obesity in adult rats: similarities to hypothalmic and human obesity syndromes. Physiol. Behavior 17: 461–471, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tobias, A. L., and Gordon, J. B. “Social Consequences of Obesity.” J. Am. Dietet. Assoc. 76:338–342, 1980.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Benoit, F. L., Martin, R. L., and Watters, R. H. Changes in body composition during weight reduction in obesity. Ann. Inter. Medicine 63(4):604–612, 1965.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Passmore, R., Strong, J. A., and Ritchie, F. J. The chemical composition of the tissue lost by obese patients in a reducing regimen, Br. J. Nutr. 12:113–122, 1958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Passmore, R., Strong, J. A., and Ritchie, F. J. American College of Sports Medicine. Position statement on proper and improper weight loss programs. Med. Sci. in Sports and Exercise 15:ix–xiii, 1983.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Spectrum Publications, Inc. 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Macedonio

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations