Advertisement

The Function of the Islets of Langerhans

  • William Montague
Part of the Croom Helm Biology in Medicine Series book series (CHBMS)

Abstract

The islets of Langerhans play an essential role in regulating nutrient homeostasis in man. They function to ensure that despite wide fluctuations in the supply of certain nutrients in the diet, the concentration of these nutrients in the blood is maintained at a level appropriate to the varying and competing needs of the tissues of the body. This is achieved largely by alterations in the rate of secretion of the islet cell hormones into the circulation. These hormones are released in response to changes in the concentration of metabolites and other hormones in the circulation and in response to the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The relative amounts of insulin and glucagon in the circulation, determined largely by their rate of secretion, is an important factor in regulating the rate of flux of metabolites into and out of tissues such as liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin do not appear to have any direct effect on the metabolism of these tissues, and these hormones may play a role in determining the rate of entry of nutrients into the circulation from the gastrointestinal tract.

Keywords

Adipose Tissue Ketone Body Pancreatic Polypeptide Islet Hormone Blood Metabolite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Further Reading

  1. Cahill, G.F. Physiology of Insulin in Man. Diabetes (1971) 20, 785 - 799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cryer, P.E. Glucose Counterregulation in Man. Diabetes (1981) 30, 262 - 264Google Scholar
  3. Freinkel, N. Of Pregnancy and Progeny. Diabetes (1980) 29, 1023 - 1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gabbay, K.H. The Insulinopathies. New England Journal of Medicine (1980) 302, 165 - 167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Given, B.D. et al. Diabetes Due to Secretion of an Abnormal Insulin. New England Journal of Medicine (1980) 302, 129 - 135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Krzentowski, G. et al. Glucose Utilization During Exercise in Normal and Diabetic Subjects. Diabetes (1981) 30, 983 - 989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Newsholme, E.A. The Control of Fuel Utilization by Muscle During Exercise and Starvation. Diabetes (1979) 28 suppl. 1, p. 1-7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Pilkis, S.J. et al. Hormonal Control of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis. Vitamins and Hormones (1978) 36, 383 - 460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Robbins, D.C. et al. A Human Proinsulin Variant at Arginine 65. Nature (1981) 29, 679 - 681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Unger, R.H. The Milieu Interieur and the Islets of Langerhans. Diabetologia (1981) 20, 1 - 11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Unger, R.H. et al. Insulin, Glucagon and Somatostatin Secretion in the Regulation of Metabolism. Annual Review of Physiology (1978) 40, 307 - 343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Wahren, J. et al. Physical Exercise and Fuel Homeostasis in Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetologia (1978) 14, 213 - 222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© William Montague 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Montague

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations